β-casomorphin induces Fos-like immunoreactivity in discrete brain regions relevant to schizophrenia and autism

Zhongjie Sun, J. Robert Cade, Melvin J. Fregly, R. Malcolm Privette

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

51 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The induction of Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) was used to determine the brain localization affected by β-casomorphin-7 (β-CM7). Peripheral administration of human β-CM7 at different doses (5, 10 and 30 μg/kg, IV for 1 hour) to rats induced moderate to strong FLI in discrete brain regions including the nucleus accumbens, caudate putamen, ventral tegmental and median raphe nucleus, and orbito-frontal, prefrontal, parietal, temporal, occipital and entorhinal cortex. All of the above areas have been shown to be altered either functionally or anatomically in patients with schizophrenia, and most have been shown to be functionally abnormal in autism. Some of these brain areas are originators or components of dopaminergic, serotoninergic and GABA-ergic pathways, suggesting that β-CM7 can affect the function of all of these systems. The role of some other affected areas in emotional and motivated behavior, social adaptation, hallucinations and delusions suggests that β-CM7, which was found in high concentration in the CSF, blood and urine of patients with either schizophrenia or autism, may be relevant to schizophrenia and autism. Induction of FLI in the above brain areas by a moderate dose (10 μg/kg) of β-CM7 was attenuated significantly, or blocked, by pretreatment with naloxone (2 mg/kg, IP). It is concluded that human β-CM7 can cross the blood-brain barrier, activate opioid receptors and affect brain regions similar to those affected by schizophrenia and autism.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)67-83
Number of pages17
JournalAutism
Volume3
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 1999

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Autistic Disorder
Schizophrenia
Brain
Occipital Lobe
Entorhinal Cortex
Parietal Lobe
Raphe Nuclei
Delusions
Hallucinations
Putamen
Nucleus Accumbens
Opioid Receptors
Frontal Lobe
Temporal Lobe
Naloxone
Prefrontal Cortex
Blood-Brain Barrier
gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
Urine

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

Cite this

β-casomorphin induces Fos-like immunoreactivity in discrete brain regions relevant to schizophrenia and autism. / Sun, Zhongjie; Cade, J. Robert; Fregly, Melvin J.; Privette, R. Malcolm.

In: Autism, Vol. 3, No. 1, 01.03.1999, p. 67-83.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sun, Zhongjie ; Cade, J. Robert ; Fregly, Melvin J. ; Privette, R. Malcolm. / β-casomorphin induces Fos-like immunoreactivity in discrete brain regions relevant to schizophrenia and autism. In: Autism. 1999 ; Vol. 3, No. 1. pp. 67-83.
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