2014 Evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults

Report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8)

Paul A. James, Suzanne Oparil, Barry L. Carter, William Cushman, Cheryl Dennison-Himmelfarb, Joel Handler, Daniel T. Lackland, Michael L. LeFevre, Thomas D. MacKenzie, Olugbenga Ogedegbe, Sidney C. Smith, Laura P. Svetkey, Sandra J. Taler, Raymond R. Townsend, Jackson T. Wright, Andrew S. Narva, Eduardo Ortiz

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

3989 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Hypertension is the most common condition seen in primary care and leads to myocardial infarction, stroke, renal failure, and death if not detected early and treated appropriately. Patients want to be assured that blood pressure (BP) treatment will reduce their disease burden, while clinicians want guidance on hypertension management using the best scientific evidence. This report takes a rigorous, evidence-based approach to recommend treatment thresholds, goals, and medications in the management of hypertension in adults. Evidence was drawn from randomized controlled trials, which represent the gold standard for determining efficacy and effectiveness. Evidence quality and recommendations were graded based on their effect on important outcomes. There is strong evidence to support treating hypertensive persons aged 60 years or older to a BP goal of less than 150/90 mm Hg and hypertensive persons 30 through 59 years of age to a diastolic goal of less than 90 mm Hg; however, there is insufficient evidence in hypertensive persons younger than 60 years for a systolic goal, or in those younger than 30 years for a diastolic goal, so the panel recommends a BP of less than 140/90 mm Hg for those groups based on expert opinion. The same thresholds and goals are recommended for hypertensive adults with diabetes or nondiabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) as for the general hypertensive population younger than 60 years. There is moderate evidence to support initiating drug treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, angiotensin receptor blocker, calcium channel blocker, or thiazide-type diuretic in the nonblack hypertensive population, including those with diabetes. In the black hypertensive population, including those with diabetes, a calcium channel blocker or thiazide-type diuretic is recommended as initial therapy. There is moderate evidence to support initial or add-on antihypertensive therapy with an angiotensin- converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker in persons with CKD to improve kidney outcomes. Although this guideline provides evidence-based recommendations for the management of high BP and should meet the clinical needs of most patients, these recommendations are not a substitute for clinical judgment, and decisions about care must carefully consider and incorporate the clinical characteristics and circumstances of each individual patient.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)507-520
Number of pages14
JournalJAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association
Volume311
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014

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Guidelines
Hypertension
Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists
Calcium Channel Blockers
Blood Pressure
Chronic Renal Insufficiency
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
Population
Therapeutics
Expert Testimony
Antihypertensive Agents
Renal Insufficiency
Primary Health Care
Randomized Controlled Trials
Stroke
Myocardial Infarction
Kidney
Pharmaceutical Preparations

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

2014 Evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults : Report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8). / James, Paul A.; Oparil, Suzanne; Carter, Barry L.; Cushman, William; Dennison-Himmelfarb, Cheryl; Handler, Joel; Lackland, Daniel T.; LeFevre, Michael L.; MacKenzie, Thomas D.; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga; Smith, Sidney C.; Svetkey, Laura P.; Taler, Sandra J.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Wright, Jackson T.; Narva, Andrew S.; Ortiz, Eduardo.

In: JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 311, No. 5, 01.01.2014, p. 507-520.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

James, PA, Oparil, S, Carter, BL, Cushman, W, Dennison-Himmelfarb, C, Handler, J, Lackland, DT, LeFevre, ML, MacKenzie, TD, Ogedegbe, O, Smith, SC, Svetkey, LP, Taler, SJ, Townsend, RR, Wright, JT, Narva, AS & Ortiz, E 2014, '2014 Evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: Report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8)', JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 311, no. 5, pp. 507-520. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2013.284427
James, Paul A. ; Oparil, Suzanne ; Carter, Barry L. ; Cushman, William ; Dennison-Himmelfarb, Cheryl ; Handler, Joel ; Lackland, Daniel T. ; LeFevre, Michael L. ; MacKenzie, Thomas D. ; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga ; Smith, Sidney C. ; Svetkey, Laura P. ; Taler, Sandra J. ; Townsend, Raymond R. ; Wright, Jackson T. ; Narva, Andrew S. ; Ortiz, Eduardo. / 2014 Evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults : Report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8). In: JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association. 2014 ; Vol. 311, No. 5. pp. 507-520.
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