A multicentre comparison of quantitative 90Y PET/CT for dosimetric purposes after radioembolization with resin microspheres

The QUEST Phantom Study

Kathy P. Willowson, Michael Tapner, QUEST Investigator Team The QUEST Investigator Team, Dale L. Bailey, K. P. Willowson, M. J. Tapner, H. Ahmadzadehfar, H. Amthauer, O. S. Großer, J. Arbizu, J. M. Martí-Climent, M. Rodriguez-Fraile, A. A. Attarwala, G. Glatting, F. Molina-Duran, O. Bagni, L. Filippi, F. Benard, A. Celler, F. Bonutti & 88 others F. Botta, M. Ferrari, J. A. Boucek, R. Francis, Austin Bourgeois, Yong Bradley, Alexander Pasciak, H. G. Buchholz, M. Miederer, K. A. Büsing, S. O. Schönberg, T. Carlier, T. Eugene, M. Cervo, S. C. Moore, S. Civollani, C. Pettinato, M. Conti, A. J. Craig, G. D. Flux, M. Cremonesi, M. D’Andrea, G. Iaccarino, L. Strigari, M. D’Arienzo, Y. D’Asseler, B. Lambert, F. Di Martino, M. Doss, H. Duan, M. Hoffmann, P. Flamen, B. Vanderlinden, A. M. Fletcher, E. Fourkal, L. M. Freeman, O. Geatti, A. Goedicke, C. M.R. Habito, J. Ouyang, A. Hallam, Darren G. Morgan, S. Heard, F. Leek, S. Holm, J. Mortensen, R. de Nijs, C. A. Hooker, S. P. Jeans, P. J. Julyan, L. Kabasakal, H. Tanyildizi, H. Tanyildizi, S. C. Kappadath, W. Siman, M. Lassmann, S. Schlögl, M. W. Law, V. H. Lee, S. C. Ng, R. Lhommel, M. A. Lodge, M. Luster, D. R. McGowan, B. McLamb, H. J. Kaiser, F. M. Mottaghy, R. U. Mulder, Patricia Judy, James R. Stone, Alfredo Lopez, O. L. Munk, P. F. Staanum, R. Muzaffar, M. M. Osman, K. S. Nijran, D. J. Towey, G. J. O’Keefe, R. A. Pooley, J. M. McKinney, I. F. Rausch, M. Reindl, A. Sheikh, N. Song, S. M. Srinivas, G. Weir, N. Yu, D. L. Bailey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

59 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: To investigate and compare the quantitative accuracy of 90Y imaging across different generation PET/CT scanners, for the purpose of dosimetry after radioembolization with resin microspheres. Methods: A strict experimental and imaging protocol was followed by 47 international sites using the NEMA 2007/IEC 2008 PET body phantom with an 8-to-1 sphere-to-background ratio of 90Y solution. The phantom was imaged over a 7-day period (activity ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 GBq) and all reconstructed data were analysed at a core laboratory for consistent processing. Quantitative accuracy was assessed through measures of total phantom activity, activity concentration in background and hot spheres, misplaced counts in a nonradioactive insert, and background variability. Results: Of the 69 scanners assessed, 37 had both time-of-flight (ToF) and resolution recovery (RR) capability. These current generation scanners from GE, Philips and Siemens could reconstruct background concentration measures to within 10 % of true values over the evaluated range, with greater deviations on the Philips systems at low count rates, and demonstrated typical partial volume effects on hot sphere recovery, which dominated spheres of diameter <20 mm. For spheres >20 mm in diameter, activity concentrations were consistently underestimated by about 20 %. Non-ToF scanners from GE Healthcare and Siemens were capable of producing accurate measures, but with inferior quantitative recovery compared with ToF systems. Conclusion: Current generation ToF scanners can consistently reconstruct 90Y activity concentrations, but they underestimate activity concentrations in small structures (≤37 mm diameter) within a warm background due to partial volume effects and constraints of the reconstruction algorithm. At the highest count rates investigated, measures of background concentration (about 300 kBq/ml) could be estimated on average to within 1 %, 5 % and 2 % for GE Healthcare (all-pass filter, RR + ToF), Philips (4i8s ToF) and Siemens (2i21s all-pass filter, RR + ToF) ToF systems, respectively. Over the range of activities investigated, comparable performance between GE Healthcare and Siemens ToF systems suggests suitability for quantitative analysis in a scenario analogous to that of postradioembolization imaging for treatment of liver cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1202-1222
Number of pages21
JournalEuropean Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Volume42
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 26 2015

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Microspheres
Delivery of Health Care
Liver Neoplasms

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Cite this

Willowson, K. P., Tapner, M., The QUEST Investigator Team, QUEST. I. T., Bailey, D. L., Willowson, K. P., Tapner, M. J., ... Bailey, D. L. (2015). A multicentre comparison of quantitative 90Y PET/CT for dosimetric purposes after radioembolization with resin microspheres: The QUEST Phantom Study. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, 42(8), 1202-1222. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00259-015-3059-9

A multicentre comparison of quantitative 90Y PET/CT for dosimetric purposes after radioembolization with resin microspheres : The QUEST Phantom Study. / Willowson, Kathy P.; Tapner, Michael; The QUEST Investigator Team, QUEST Investigator Team; Bailey, Dale L.; Willowson, K. P.; Tapner, M. J.; Ahmadzadehfar, H.; Amthauer, H.; Großer, O. S.; Arbizu, J.; Martí-Climent, J. M.; Rodriguez-Fraile, M.; Attarwala, A. A.; Glatting, G.; Molina-Duran, F.; Bagni, O.; Filippi, L.; Benard, F.; Celler, A.; Bonutti, F.; Botta, F.; Ferrari, M.; Boucek, J. A.; Francis, R.; Bourgeois, Austin; Bradley, Yong; Pasciak, Alexander; Buchholz, H. G.; Miederer, M.; Büsing, K. A.; Schönberg, S. O.; Carlier, T.; Eugene, T.; Cervo, M.; Moore, S. C.; Civollani, S.; Pettinato, C.; Conti, M.; Craig, A. J.; Flux, G. D.; Cremonesi, M.; D’Andrea, M.; Iaccarino, G.; Strigari, L.; D’Arienzo, M.; D’Asseler, Y.; Lambert, B.; Di Martino, F.; Doss, M.; Duan, H.; Hoffmann, M.; Flamen, P.; Vanderlinden, B.; Fletcher, A. M.; Fourkal, E.; Freeman, L. M.; Geatti, O.; Goedicke, A.; Habito, C. M.R.; Ouyang, J.; Hallam, A.; Morgan, Darren G.; Heard, S.; Leek, F.; Holm, S.; Mortensen, J.; de Nijs, R.; Hooker, C. A.; Jeans, S. P.; Julyan, P. J.; Kabasakal, L.; Tanyildizi, H.; Tanyildizi, H.; Kappadath, S. C.; Siman, W.; Lassmann, M.; Schlögl, S.; Law, M. W.; Lee, V. H.; Ng, S. C.; Lhommel, R.; Lodge, M. A.; Luster, M.; McGowan, D. R.; McLamb, B.; Kaiser, H. J.; Mottaghy, F. M.; Mulder, R. U.; Judy, Patricia; Stone, James R.; Lopez, Alfredo; Munk, O. L.; Staanum, P. F.; Muzaffar, R.; Osman, M. M.; Nijran, K. S.; Towey, D. J.; O’Keefe, G. J.; Pooley, R. A.; McKinney, J. M.; Rausch, I. F.; Reindl, M.; Sheikh, A.; Song, N.; Srinivas, S. M.; Weir, G.; Yu, N.; Bailey, D. L.

In: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Vol. 42, No. 8, 26.07.2015, p. 1202-1222.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Willowson, KP, Tapner, M, The QUEST Investigator Team, QUESTIT, Bailey, DL, Willowson, KP, Tapner, MJ, Ahmadzadehfar, H, Amthauer, H, Großer, OS, Arbizu, J, Martí-Climent, JM, Rodriguez-Fraile, M, Attarwala, AA, Glatting, G, Molina-Duran, F, Bagni, O, Filippi, L, Benard, F, Celler, A, Bonutti, F, Botta, F, Ferrari, M, Boucek, JA, Francis, R, Bourgeois, A, Bradley, Y, Pasciak, A, Buchholz, HG, Miederer, M, Büsing, KA, Schönberg, SO, Carlier, T, Eugene, T, Cervo, M, Moore, SC, Civollani, S, Pettinato, C, Conti, M, Craig, AJ, Flux, GD, Cremonesi, M, D’Andrea, M, Iaccarino, G, Strigari, L, D’Arienzo, M, D’Asseler, Y, Lambert, B, Di Martino, F, Doss, M, Duan, H, Hoffmann, M, Flamen, P, Vanderlinden, B, Fletcher, AM, Fourkal, E, Freeman, LM, Geatti, O, Goedicke, A, Habito, CMR, Ouyang, J, Hallam, A, Morgan, DG, Heard, S, Leek, F, Holm, S, Mortensen, J, de Nijs, R, Hooker, CA, Jeans, SP, Julyan, PJ, Kabasakal, L, Tanyildizi, H, Tanyildizi, H, Kappadath, SC, Siman, W, Lassmann, M, Schlögl, S, Law, MW, Lee, VH, Ng, SC, Lhommel, R, Lodge, MA, Luster, M, McGowan, DR, McLamb, B, Kaiser, HJ, Mottaghy, FM, Mulder, RU, Judy, P, Stone, JR, Lopez, A, Munk, OL, Staanum, PF, Muzaffar, R, Osman, MM, Nijran, KS, Towey, DJ, O’Keefe, GJ, Pooley, RA, McKinney, JM, Rausch, IF, Reindl, M, Sheikh, A, Song, N, Srinivas, SM, Weir, G, Yu, N & Bailey, DL 2015, 'A multicentre comparison of quantitative 90Y PET/CT for dosimetric purposes after radioembolization with resin microspheres: The QUEST Phantom Study', European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, vol. 42, no. 8, pp. 1202-1222. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00259-015-3059-9
Willowson, Kathy P. ; Tapner, Michael ; The QUEST Investigator Team, QUEST Investigator Team ; Bailey, Dale L. ; Willowson, K. P. ; Tapner, M. J. ; Ahmadzadehfar, H. ; Amthauer, H. ; Großer, O. S. ; Arbizu, J. ; Martí-Climent, J. M. ; Rodriguez-Fraile, M. ; Attarwala, A. A. ; Glatting, G. ; Molina-Duran, F. ; Bagni, O. ; Filippi, L. ; Benard, F. ; Celler, A. ; Bonutti, F. ; Botta, F. ; Ferrari, M. ; Boucek, J. A. ; Francis, R. ; Bourgeois, Austin ; Bradley, Yong ; Pasciak, Alexander ; Buchholz, H. G. ; Miederer, M. ; Büsing, K. A. ; Schönberg, S. O. ; Carlier, T. ; Eugene, T. ; Cervo, M. ; Moore, S. C. ; Civollani, S. ; Pettinato, C. ; Conti, M. ; Craig, A. J. ; Flux, G. D. ; Cremonesi, M. ; D’Andrea, M. ; Iaccarino, G. ; Strigari, L. ; D’Arienzo, M. ; D’Asseler, Y. ; Lambert, B. ; Di Martino, F. ; Doss, M. ; Duan, H. ; Hoffmann, M. ; Flamen, P. ; Vanderlinden, B. ; Fletcher, A. M. ; Fourkal, E. ; Freeman, L. M. ; Geatti, O. ; Goedicke, A. ; Habito, C. M.R. ; Ouyang, J. ; Hallam, A. ; Morgan, Darren G. ; Heard, S. ; Leek, F. ; Holm, S. ; Mortensen, J. ; de Nijs, R. ; Hooker, C. A. ; Jeans, S. P. ; Julyan, P. J. ; Kabasakal, L. ; Tanyildizi, H. ; Tanyildizi, H. ; Kappadath, S. C. ; Siman, W. ; Lassmann, M. ; Schlögl, S. ; Law, M. W. ; Lee, V. H. ; Ng, S. C. ; Lhommel, R. ; Lodge, M. A. ; Luster, M. ; McGowan, D. R. ; McLamb, B. ; Kaiser, H. J. ; Mottaghy, F. M. ; Mulder, R. U. ; Judy, Patricia ; Stone, James R. ; Lopez, Alfredo ; Munk, O. L. ; Staanum, P. F. ; Muzaffar, R. ; Osman, M. M. ; Nijran, K. S. ; Towey, D. J. ; O’Keefe, G. J. ; Pooley, R. A. ; McKinney, J. M. ; Rausch, I. F. ; Reindl, M. ; Sheikh, A. ; Song, N. ; Srinivas, S. M. ; Weir, G. ; Yu, N. ; Bailey, D. L. / A multicentre comparison of quantitative 90Y PET/CT for dosimetric purposes after radioembolization with resin microspheres : The QUEST Phantom Study. In: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. 2015 ; Vol. 42, No. 8. pp. 1202-1222.
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title = "A multicentre comparison of quantitative 90Y PET/CT for dosimetric purposes after radioembolization with resin microspheres: The QUEST Phantom Study",
abstract = "Purpose: To investigate and compare the quantitative accuracy of 90Y imaging across different generation PET/CT scanners, for the purpose of dosimetry after radioembolization with resin microspheres. Methods: A strict experimental and imaging protocol was followed by 47 international sites using the NEMA 2007/IEC 2008 PET body phantom with an 8-to-1 sphere-to-background ratio of 90Y solution. The phantom was imaged over a 7-day period (activity ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 GBq) and all reconstructed data were analysed at a core laboratory for consistent processing. Quantitative accuracy was assessed through measures of total phantom activity, activity concentration in background and hot spheres, misplaced counts in a nonradioactive insert, and background variability. Results: Of the 69 scanners assessed, 37 had both time-of-flight (ToF) and resolution recovery (RR) capability. These current generation scanners from GE, Philips and Siemens could reconstruct background concentration measures to within 10 {\%} of true values over the evaluated range, with greater deviations on the Philips systems at low count rates, and demonstrated typical partial volume effects on hot sphere recovery, which dominated spheres of diameter <20 mm. For spheres >20 mm in diameter, activity concentrations were consistently underestimated by about 20 {\%}. Non-ToF scanners from GE Healthcare and Siemens were capable of producing accurate measures, but with inferior quantitative recovery compared with ToF systems. Conclusion: Current generation ToF scanners can consistently reconstruct 90Y activity concentrations, but they underestimate activity concentrations in small structures (≤37 mm diameter) within a warm background due to partial volume effects and constraints of the reconstruction algorithm. At the highest count rates investigated, measures of background concentration (about 300 kBq/ml) could be estimated on average to within 1 {\%}, 5 {\%} and 2 {\%} for GE Healthcare (all-pass filter, RR + ToF), Philips (4i8s ToF) and Siemens (2i21s all-pass filter, RR + ToF) ToF systems, respectively. Over the range of activities investigated, comparable performance between GE Healthcare and Siemens ToF systems suggests suitability for quantitative analysis in a scenario analogous to that of postradioembolization imaging for treatment of liver cancer.",
author = "Willowson, {Kathy P.} and Michael Tapner and {The QUEST Investigator Team}, {QUEST Investigator Team} and Bailey, {Dale L.} and Willowson, {K. P.} and Tapner, {M. J.} and H. Ahmadzadehfar and H. Amthauer and Gro{\ss}er, {O. S.} and J. Arbizu and Mart{\'i}-Climent, {J. M.} and M. Rodriguez-Fraile and Attarwala, {A. A.} and G. Glatting and F. Molina-Duran and O. Bagni and L. Filippi and F. Benard and A. Celler and F. Bonutti and F. Botta and M. Ferrari and Boucek, {J. A.} and R. Francis and Austin Bourgeois and Yong Bradley and Alexander Pasciak and Buchholz, {H. G.} and M. Miederer and B{\"u}sing, {K. A.} and Sch{\"o}nberg, {S. O.} and T. Carlier and T. Eugene and M. Cervo and Moore, {S. C.} and S. Civollani and C. Pettinato and M. Conti and Craig, {A. J.} and Flux, {G. D.} and M. Cremonesi and M. D’Andrea and G. Iaccarino and L. Strigari and M. D’Arienzo and Y. D’Asseler and B. Lambert and {Di Martino}, F. and M. Doss and H. Duan and M. Hoffmann and P. Flamen and B. Vanderlinden and Fletcher, {A. M.} and E. Fourkal and Freeman, {L. M.} and O. Geatti and A. Goedicke and Habito, {C. M.R.} and J. Ouyang and A. Hallam and Morgan, {Darren G.} and S. Heard and F. Leek and S. Holm and J. Mortensen and {de Nijs}, R. and Hooker, {C. A.} and Jeans, {S. P.} and Julyan, {P. J.} and L. Kabasakal and H. Tanyildizi and H. Tanyildizi and Kappadath, {S. C.} and W. Siman and M. Lassmann and S. Schl{\"o}gl and Law, {M. W.} and Lee, {V. H.} and Ng, {S. C.} and R. Lhommel and Lodge, {M. A.} and M. Luster and McGowan, {D. R.} and B. McLamb and Kaiser, {H. J.} and Mottaghy, {F. M.} and Mulder, {R. U.} and Patricia Judy and Stone, {James R.} and Alfredo Lopez and Munk, {O. L.} and Staanum, {P. F.} and R. Muzaffar and Osman, {M. M.} and Nijran, {K. S.} and Towey, {D. J.} and O’Keefe, {G. J.} and Pooley, {R. A.} and McKinney, {J. M.} and Rausch, {I. F.} and M. Reindl and A. Sheikh and N. Song and Srinivas, {S. M.} and G. Weir and N. Yu and Bailey, {D. L.}",
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doi = "10.1007/s00259-015-3059-9",
language = "English (US)",
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pages = "1202--1222",
journal = "European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - A multicentre comparison of quantitative 90Y PET/CT for dosimetric purposes after radioembolization with resin microspheres

T2 - The QUEST Phantom Study

AU - Willowson, Kathy P.

AU - Tapner, Michael

AU - The QUEST Investigator Team, QUEST Investigator Team

AU - Bailey, Dale L.

AU - Willowson, K. P.

AU - Tapner, M. J.

AU - Ahmadzadehfar, H.

AU - Amthauer, H.

AU - Großer, O. S.

AU - Arbizu, J.

AU - Martí-Climent, J. M.

AU - Rodriguez-Fraile, M.

AU - Attarwala, A. A.

AU - Glatting, G.

AU - Molina-Duran, F.

AU - Bagni, O.

AU - Filippi, L.

AU - Benard, F.

AU - Celler, A.

AU - Bonutti, F.

AU - Botta, F.

AU - Ferrari, M.

AU - Boucek, J. A.

AU - Francis, R.

AU - Bourgeois, Austin

AU - Bradley, Yong

AU - Pasciak, Alexander

AU - Buchholz, H. G.

AU - Miederer, M.

AU - Büsing, K. A.

AU - Schönberg, S. O.

AU - Carlier, T.

AU - Eugene, T.

AU - Cervo, M.

AU - Moore, S. C.

AU - Civollani, S.

AU - Pettinato, C.

AU - Conti, M.

AU - Craig, A. J.

AU - Flux, G. D.

AU - Cremonesi, M.

AU - D’Andrea, M.

AU - Iaccarino, G.

AU - Strigari, L.

AU - D’Arienzo, M.

AU - D’Asseler, Y.

AU - Lambert, B.

AU - Di Martino, F.

AU - Doss, M.

AU - Duan, H.

AU - Hoffmann, M.

AU - Flamen, P.

AU - Vanderlinden, B.

AU - Fletcher, A. M.

AU - Fourkal, E.

AU - Freeman, L. M.

AU - Geatti, O.

AU - Goedicke, A.

AU - Habito, C. M.R.

AU - Ouyang, J.

AU - Hallam, A.

AU - Morgan, Darren G.

AU - Heard, S.

AU - Leek, F.

AU - Holm, S.

AU - Mortensen, J.

AU - de Nijs, R.

AU - Hooker, C. A.

AU - Jeans, S. P.

AU - Julyan, P. J.

AU - Kabasakal, L.

AU - Tanyildizi, H.

AU - Tanyildizi, H.

AU - Kappadath, S. C.

AU - Siman, W.

AU - Lassmann, M.

AU - Schlögl, S.

AU - Law, M. W.

AU - Lee, V. H.

AU - Ng, S. C.

AU - Lhommel, R.

AU - Lodge, M. A.

AU - Luster, M.

AU - McGowan, D. R.

AU - McLamb, B.

AU - Kaiser, H. J.

AU - Mottaghy, F. M.

AU - Mulder, R. U.

AU - Judy, Patricia

AU - Stone, James R.

AU - Lopez, Alfredo

AU - Munk, O. L.

AU - Staanum, P. F.

AU - Muzaffar, R.

AU - Osman, M. M.

AU - Nijran, K. S.

AU - Towey, D. J.

AU - O’Keefe, G. J.

AU - Pooley, R. A.

AU - McKinney, J. M.

AU - Rausch, I. F.

AU - Reindl, M.

AU - Sheikh, A.

AU - Song, N.

AU - Srinivas, S. M.

AU - Weir, G.

AU - Yu, N.

AU - Bailey, D. L.

PY - 2015/7/26

Y1 - 2015/7/26

N2 - Purpose: To investigate and compare the quantitative accuracy of 90Y imaging across different generation PET/CT scanners, for the purpose of dosimetry after radioembolization with resin microspheres. Methods: A strict experimental and imaging protocol was followed by 47 international sites using the NEMA 2007/IEC 2008 PET body phantom with an 8-to-1 sphere-to-background ratio of 90Y solution. The phantom was imaged over a 7-day period (activity ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 GBq) and all reconstructed data were analysed at a core laboratory for consistent processing. Quantitative accuracy was assessed through measures of total phantom activity, activity concentration in background and hot spheres, misplaced counts in a nonradioactive insert, and background variability. Results: Of the 69 scanners assessed, 37 had both time-of-flight (ToF) and resolution recovery (RR) capability. These current generation scanners from GE, Philips and Siemens could reconstruct background concentration measures to within 10 % of true values over the evaluated range, with greater deviations on the Philips systems at low count rates, and demonstrated typical partial volume effects on hot sphere recovery, which dominated spheres of diameter <20 mm. For spheres >20 mm in diameter, activity concentrations were consistently underestimated by about 20 %. Non-ToF scanners from GE Healthcare and Siemens were capable of producing accurate measures, but with inferior quantitative recovery compared with ToF systems. Conclusion: Current generation ToF scanners can consistently reconstruct 90Y activity concentrations, but they underestimate activity concentrations in small structures (≤37 mm diameter) within a warm background due to partial volume effects and constraints of the reconstruction algorithm. At the highest count rates investigated, measures of background concentration (about 300 kBq/ml) could be estimated on average to within 1 %, 5 % and 2 % for GE Healthcare (all-pass filter, RR + ToF), Philips (4i8s ToF) and Siemens (2i21s all-pass filter, RR + ToF) ToF systems, respectively. Over the range of activities investigated, comparable performance between GE Healthcare and Siemens ToF systems suggests suitability for quantitative analysis in a scenario analogous to that of postradioembolization imaging for treatment of liver cancer.

AB - Purpose: To investigate and compare the quantitative accuracy of 90Y imaging across different generation PET/CT scanners, for the purpose of dosimetry after radioembolization with resin microspheres. Methods: A strict experimental and imaging protocol was followed by 47 international sites using the NEMA 2007/IEC 2008 PET body phantom with an 8-to-1 sphere-to-background ratio of 90Y solution. The phantom was imaged over a 7-day period (activity ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 GBq) and all reconstructed data were analysed at a core laboratory for consistent processing. Quantitative accuracy was assessed through measures of total phantom activity, activity concentration in background and hot spheres, misplaced counts in a nonradioactive insert, and background variability. Results: Of the 69 scanners assessed, 37 had both time-of-flight (ToF) and resolution recovery (RR) capability. These current generation scanners from GE, Philips and Siemens could reconstruct background concentration measures to within 10 % of true values over the evaluated range, with greater deviations on the Philips systems at low count rates, and demonstrated typical partial volume effects on hot sphere recovery, which dominated spheres of diameter <20 mm. For spheres >20 mm in diameter, activity concentrations were consistently underestimated by about 20 %. Non-ToF scanners from GE Healthcare and Siemens were capable of producing accurate measures, but with inferior quantitative recovery compared with ToF systems. Conclusion: Current generation ToF scanners can consistently reconstruct 90Y activity concentrations, but they underestimate activity concentrations in small structures (≤37 mm diameter) within a warm background due to partial volume effects and constraints of the reconstruction algorithm. At the highest count rates investigated, measures of background concentration (about 300 kBq/ml) could be estimated on average to within 1 %, 5 % and 2 % for GE Healthcare (all-pass filter, RR + ToF), Philips (4i8s ToF) and Siemens (2i21s all-pass filter, RR + ToF) ToF systems, respectively. Over the range of activities investigated, comparable performance between GE Healthcare and Siemens ToF systems suggests suitability for quantitative analysis in a scenario analogous to that of postradioembolization imaging for treatment of liver cancer.

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SN - 1619-7070

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