A study of acute febrile encephalopathy with special reference to viral etiology

S. A. Karmarkar, Satinder Aneja, Shashi Khare, Arun Saini, Anju Seth, B. K.Y. Chauhan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Objective. To study the etiological profile of patients with acute febrile encephalopathy syndrome focusing chiefly on the viral etiology, and to correlate clinical and radiological features of patients with viral encephalitis. Methods. A prospective hospital based study conducted on the consecutive patients admitted in a pediatric unit during the period of 1st February 2004 to 31st January 2005 based on the following inclusion criteria: (1) Age more than 1 month and less than 18 years and (2) A diagnoses of acute febrile encephalopathy, based on the following criteria: (i) fever (ii) acute depression of consciousness or mental deterioration for more than 12 hours with or without motor or sensory deficit and (iii) Total duration of illness at the time of admission 1 week or less. Results. The final study group comprised of 151 patients with mean age of 3.21 ± 2.9 (range of mth-13 years) and male: female ratio of 1.71: 1. A diagnosis other than viral encephalitis was reached in 94 patients (62.3 %). Pyogenic meningitis was the most frequent diagnosis 51(33.8 %) followed by tubercular meningitis 12 (7.9 %), and cerebral malaria 8 (5.2 %) in the patient group of non-viral causes. Fifty-seven cases (37.3%) were suspected as viral encephalitis and mean age of the cases suspected as viral encephalitis was 2.8 ± 2.9 (Range 1 mth-10 yrs) with male: female ratio of 1.28: 1. Etiological diagnosis was reached or considered probable in 41 (72%) cases out of the suspected patients. The most common etiological agent identified was enterovirus 71 in 20 patients (35.1 %). The other viruses identified were mumps in 6 (10.5%), Japanese encephalitis in 5 (8.7%), and measles in 4 (7%) cases. MRI brain was done in 39 patients and was abnormal in 14 patients. Out of 57 cases of suspected viral encephalitis 10 patients expired within 48 hours, 2 > 48 hours and 19 atients had significant neurological sequels at discharge. Conclusion. The etiology of acute febrile encephalopathy varies from infectious etiologies to noninfectious metabolic disorders. There are no distinguishing clinical or radiological features to differentiate the various causes of viral encephalitis. The clinical and the radiological findings in encephalitis should be interpreted in the geographical and other epidemiological background.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)801-805
Number of pages5
JournalIndian Journal of Pediatrics
Volume75
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2008
Externally publishedYes

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Viral Encephalitis
Acute Febrile Encephalopathy
Japanese Encephalitis
Cerebral Malaria
Meningeal Tuberculosis
Mumps
Enterovirus
Measles
Encephalitis
Consciousness
Meningitis
Fever
Pediatrics
Viruses
Brain

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Cite this

A study of acute febrile encephalopathy with special reference to viral etiology. / Karmarkar, S. A.; Aneja, Satinder; Khare, Shashi; Saini, Arun; Seth, Anju; Chauhan, B. K.Y.

In: Indian Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 75, No. 8, 01.08.2008, p. 801-805.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Karmarkar, S. A. ; Aneja, Satinder ; Khare, Shashi ; Saini, Arun ; Seth, Anju ; Chauhan, B. K.Y. / A study of acute febrile encephalopathy with special reference to viral etiology. In: Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 2008 ; Vol. 75, No. 8. pp. 801-805.
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N2 - Objective. To study the etiological profile of patients with acute febrile encephalopathy syndrome focusing chiefly on the viral etiology, and to correlate clinical and radiological features of patients with viral encephalitis. Methods. A prospective hospital based study conducted on the consecutive patients admitted in a pediatric unit during the period of 1st February 2004 to 31st January 2005 based on the following inclusion criteria: (1) Age more than 1 month and less than 18 years and (2) A diagnoses of acute febrile encephalopathy, based on the following criteria: (i) fever (ii) acute depression of consciousness or mental deterioration for more than 12 hours with or without motor or sensory deficit and (iii) Total duration of illness at the time of admission 1 week or less. Results. The final study group comprised of 151 patients with mean age of 3.21 ± 2.9 (range of mth-13 years) and male: female ratio of 1.71: 1. A diagnosis other than viral encephalitis was reached in 94 patients (62.3 %). Pyogenic meningitis was the most frequent diagnosis 51(33.8 %) followed by tubercular meningitis 12 (7.9 %), and cerebral malaria 8 (5.2 %) in the patient group of non-viral causes. Fifty-seven cases (37.3%) were suspected as viral encephalitis and mean age of the cases suspected as viral encephalitis was 2.8 ± 2.9 (Range 1 mth-10 yrs) with male: female ratio of 1.28: 1. Etiological diagnosis was reached or considered probable in 41 (72%) cases out of the suspected patients. The most common etiological agent identified was enterovirus 71 in 20 patients (35.1 %). The other viruses identified were mumps in 6 (10.5%), Japanese encephalitis in 5 (8.7%), and measles in 4 (7%) cases. MRI brain was done in 39 patients and was abnormal in 14 patients. Out of 57 cases of suspected viral encephalitis 10 patients expired within 48 hours, 2 > 48 hours and 19 atients had significant neurological sequels at discharge. Conclusion. The etiology of acute febrile encephalopathy varies from infectious etiologies to noninfectious metabolic disorders. There are no distinguishing clinical or radiological features to differentiate the various causes of viral encephalitis. The clinical and the radiological findings in encephalitis should be interpreted in the geographical and other epidemiological background.

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