Abundance of female-biased and paucity of male-biased somatically expressed genes on the mouse X-chromosome

Björn Reinius, Martin M. Johansson, Katarzyna J. Radomska, Edward H. Morrow, Gaurav K. Pandey, Chandrasekhar Kanduri, Rickard Sandberg, Robert W. Williams, Elena Jazin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Empirical evaluations of sexually dimorphic expression of genes on the mammalian X-chromosome are needed to understand the evolutionary forces and the gene-regulatory mechanisms controlling this chromosome. We performed a large-scale sex-bias expression analysis of genes on the X-chromosome in six different somatic tissues from mouse.Results: Our results show that the mouse X-chromosome is enriched with female-biased genes and depleted of male-biased genes. This suggests that feminisation as well as de-masculinisation of the X-chromosome has occurred in terms of gene expression in non-reproductive tissues. Several mechanisms may be responsible for the control of female-biased expression on chromosome X, and escape from X-inactivation is a main candidate. We confirmed escape in case of Tmem29 using RNA-FISH analysis. In addition, we identified novel female-biased non-coding transcripts located in the same female-biased cluster as the well-known coding X-inactivation escapee Kdm5c, likely transcribed from the transition-region between active and silenced domains. We also found that previously known escapees only partially explained the overrepresentation of female-biased X-genes, particularly for tissue-specific female-biased genes. Therefore, the gene set we have identified contains tissue-specific escapees and/or genes controlled by other sexually skewed regulatory mechanisms. Analysis of gene age showed that evolutionarily old X-genes (>100 myr, preceding the radiation of placental mammals) are more frequently female-biased than younger genes.Conclusion: Altogether, our results have implications for understanding both gene regulation and gene evolution of mammalian X-chromosomes, and suggest that the final result in terms of the X-gene composition (masculinisation versus feminisation) is a compromise between different evolutionary forces acting on reproductive and somatic tissues.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number607
JournalBMC Genomics
Volume13
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 10 2012

Fingerprint

X Chromosome
Genes
Mammalian Chromosomes
Feminization
X Chromosome Inactivation
Gene Expression
Sexism
X-Linked Genes
Regulator Genes
Mammals
Chromosomes
RNA
Radiation

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biotechnology
  • Genetics

Cite this

Reinius, B., Johansson, M. M., Radomska, K. J., Morrow, E. H., Pandey, G. K., Kanduri, C., ... Jazin, E. (2012). Abundance of female-biased and paucity of male-biased somatically expressed genes on the mouse X-chromosome. BMC Genomics, 13(1), [607]. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-13-607

Abundance of female-biased and paucity of male-biased somatically expressed genes on the mouse X-chromosome. / Reinius, Björn; Johansson, Martin M.; Radomska, Katarzyna J.; Morrow, Edward H.; Pandey, Gaurav K.; Kanduri, Chandrasekhar; Sandberg, Rickard; Williams, Robert W.; Jazin, Elena.

In: BMC Genomics, Vol. 13, No. 1, 607, 10.11.2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Reinius, B, Johansson, MM, Radomska, KJ, Morrow, EH, Pandey, GK, Kanduri, C, Sandberg, R, Williams, RW & Jazin, E 2012, 'Abundance of female-biased and paucity of male-biased somatically expressed genes on the mouse X-chromosome', BMC Genomics, vol. 13, no. 1, 607. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-13-607
Reinius, Björn ; Johansson, Martin M. ; Radomska, Katarzyna J. ; Morrow, Edward H. ; Pandey, Gaurav K. ; Kanduri, Chandrasekhar ; Sandberg, Rickard ; Williams, Robert W. ; Jazin, Elena. / Abundance of female-biased and paucity of male-biased somatically expressed genes on the mouse X-chromosome. In: BMC Genomics. 2012 ; Vol. 13, No. 1.
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