An Update on Aerosolized Antibiotics for Treating Hospital-Acquired and Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Adults

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Abstract

Objective: A significant percentage of patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) have poor outcomes with intravenous antibiotics. It is not clear if adding aerosolized antibiotics improves treatment. This review is an update on using aerosolized antibiotics for treating HAP/VAP in adults. Data Sources: PubMed search using the terms “aerosolized antibiotics pneumonia,” “nebulized antibiotics pneumonia,” and “inhaled antibiotics pneumonia.” Reference lists from identified articles were also searched. Study Selection and Data Extraction: Clinical studies of aerosolized antibiotics for treating HAP/VAP in adults from July 2010 to March 2017. This article updates a previous review on this topic written in mid-2010. Data Synthesis: The size and quality of studies have improved dramatically in the recent time period compared to previous studies. However, there still are not large randomized controlled trials available. Colistin and aminoglycosides were the most commonly studied agents, and the most common pathogens were Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter. The clinical efficacy of adding aerosolized antibiotics was mixed. Approximately half of the studies showed better outcomes, and none showed worse outcomes. Aerosolized antibiotics appear to be relatively safe, though pulmonary adverse events can occur. Attention to proper administration technique in mechanically ventilated patients is required, including the use of vibrating plate nebulizers. Conclusions: Adding aerosolized antibiotics to intravenous antibiotics may improve the outcomes of adult patients with HAP/VAP in some settings. It seems reasonable to add aerosolized antibiotics in patients with multidrug-resistant organisms or who appear to be failing therapy. Clinicians should pay attention to potential adverse events and proper administration technique.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1112-1121
Number of pages10
JournalAnnals of Pharmacotherapy
Volume51
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2017

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Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Pneumonia
Colistin
Acinetobacter
Nebulizers and Vaporizers
Information Storage and Retrieval
Aminoglycosides
Pseudomonas
PubMed
Randomized Controlled Trials

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmacology (medical)

Cite this

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title = "An Update on Aerosolized Antibiotics for Treating Hospital-Acquired and Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Adults",
abstract = "Objective: A significant percentage of patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) have poor outcomes with intravenous antibiotics. It is not clear if adding aerosolized antibiotics improves treatment. This review is an update on using aerosolized antibiotics for treating HAP/VAP in adults. Data Sources: PubMed search using the terms “aerosolized antibiotics pneumonia,” “nebulized antibiotics pneumonia,” and “inhaled antibiotics pneumonia.” Reference lists from identified articles were also searched. Study Selection and Data Extraction: Clinical studies of aerosolized antibiotics for treating HAP/VAP in adults from July 2010 to March 2017. This article updates a previous review on this topic written in mid-2010. Data Synthesis: The size and quality of studies have improved dramatically in the recent time period compared to previous studies. However, there still are not large randomized controlled trials available. Colistin and aminoglycosides were the most commonly studied agents, and the most common pathogens were Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter. The clinical efficacy of adding aerosolized antibiotics was mixed. Approximately half of the studies showed better outcomes, and none showed worse outcomes. Aerosolized antibiotics appear to be relatively safe, though pulmonary adverse events can occur. Attention to proper administration technique in mechanically ventilated patients is required, including the use of vibrating plate nebulizers. Conclusions: Adding aerosolized antibiotics to intravenous antibiotics may improve the outcomes of adult patients with HAP/VAP in some settings. It seems reasonable to add aerosolized antibiotics in patients with multidrug-resistant organisms or who appear to be failing therapy. Clinicians should pay attention to potential adverse events and proper administration technique.",
author = "Wood, {G Christopher} and Joseph Swanson",
year = "2017",
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T1 - An Update on Aerosolized Antibiotics for Treating Hospital-Acquired and Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Adults

AU - Wood, G Christopher

AU - Swanson, Joseph

PY - 2017/12/1

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N2 - Objective: A significant percentage of patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) have poor outcomes with intravenous antibiotics. It is not clear if adding aerosolized antibiotics improves treatment. This review is an update on using aerosolized antibiotics for treating HAP/VAP in adults. Data Sources: PubMed search using the terms “aerosolized antibiotics pneumonia,” “nebulized antibiotics pneumonia,” and “inhaled antibiotics pneumonia.” Reference lists from identified articles were also searched. Study Selection and Data Extraction: Clinical studies of aerosolized antibiotics for treating HAP/VAP in adults from July 2010 to March 2017. This article updates a previous review on this topic written in mid-2010. Data Synthesis: The size and quality of studies have improved dramatically in the recent time period compared to previous studies. However, there still are not large randomized controlled trials available. Colistin and aminoglycosides were the most commonly studied agents, and the most common pathogens were Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter. The clinical efficacy of adding aerosolized antibiotics was mixed. Approximately half of the studies showed better outcomes, and none showed worse outcomes. Aerosolized antibiotics appear to be relatively safe, though pulmonary adverse events can occur. Attention to proper administration technique in mechanically ventilated patients is required, including the use of vibrating plate nebulizers. Conclusions: Adding aerosolized antibiotics to intravenous antibiotics may improve the outcomes of adult patients with HAP/VAP in some settings. It seems reasonable to add aerosolized antibiotics in patients with multidrug-resistant organisms or who appear to be failing therapy. Clinicians should pay attention to potential adverse events and proper administration technique.

AB - Objective: A significant percentage of patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) have poor outcomes with intravenous antibiotics. It is not clear if adding aerosolized antibiotics improves treatment. This review is an update on using aerosolized antibiotics for treating HAP/VAP in adults. Data Sources: PubMed search using the terms “aerosolized antibiotics pneumonia,” “nebulized antibiotics pneumonia,” and “inhaled antibiotics pneumonia.” Reference lists from identified articles were also searched. Study Selection and Data Extraction: Clinical studies of aerosolized antibiotics for treating HAP/VAP in adults from July 2010 to March 2017. This article updates a previous review on this topic written in mid-2010. Data Synthesis: The size and quality of studies have improved dramatically in the recent time period compared to previous studies. However, there still are not large randomized controlled trials available. Colistin and aminoglycosides were the most commonly studied agents, and the most common pathogens were Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter. The clinical efficacy of adding aerosolized antibiotics was mixed. Approximately half of the studies showed better outcomes, and none showed worse outcomes. Aerosolized antibiotics appear to be relatively safe, though pulmonary adverse events can occur. Attention to proper administration technique in mechanically ventilated patients is required, including the use of vibrating plate nebulizers. Conclusions: Adding aerosolized antibiotics to intravenous antibiotics may improve the outcomes of adult patients with HAP/VAP in some settings. It seems reasonable to add aerosolized antibiotics in patients with multidrug-resistant organisms or who appear to be failing therapy. Clinicians should pay attention to potential adverse events and proper administration technique.

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