Apoptotic responses to hindlimb suspension in gastrocnemius muscles from young adult and aged rats

Parco M. Siu, Emidio E. Pistilli, Stephen Alway

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124 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Although apoptosis has been demonstrated in soleus during hindlimb suspension (HS), it is not known whether apoptosis is also involved in the loss of muscles dominated by mixed fibers. Therefore, we examined the apoptotic. responses in gastrocnemius muscles of young adult and aged Fischer 344 X Brown Norway rats after 14 days of HS. The medial gastrocnemius muscle wet weight significantly decreased by 30 and 32%, and muscle wet weight normalized to the animal body weight decreased by 11 and 15% in young adult and aged animals, respectively, after HS. The extent of apoptotic DNA fragmentation increased by 119 and 61% in suspended muscles from young and aged rats, respectively. Bax mRNA increased by 73% in young muscles after HS. Bax and Bcl-2 protein levels were greater in suspended muscles relative to control muscles in both age groups. The level of cytosolic mitochondria-housed apoptotic factor cytochrome c was significantly increased in the mitochondria-free cytosol of suspended muscles from young and aged rats. In contrast, the release/accumulation of AIF, a caspase-independent apoptogenic factor, was exclusively expressed in the suspended muscles from aged rats. Our data also show that aging favors the proapoptotic signaling in skeletal muscle by altering the contents of Bax, Bcl-2, Apaf-1, AIF, caspases, XIAP, Smac/DIABLO, and cytochrome c. Furthermore, these results indicate that apoptosis occurs not only in slow-twitch soleus muscle but also in the mixed-fiber (predominately fast fibered) gastrocnemius muscle. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that apoptotic signaling differs in young adult and aged gastrocnemius muscles during HS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Volume289
Issue number4 58-4
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2005
Externally publishedYes

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Hindlimb Suspension
Young Adult
Skeletal Muscle
Muscles
Apoptosis
Cytochromes c
Mitochondria
Weights and Measures
Caspase 1
DNA Fragmentation
Caspases
Cytosol
Age Groups
Body Weight
Messenger RNA

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

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title = "Apoptotic responses to hindlimb suspension in gastrocnemius muscles from young adult and aged rats",
abstract = "Although apoptosis has been demonstrated in soleus during hindlimb suspension (HS), it is not known whether apoptosis is also involved in the loss of muscles dominated by mixed fibers. Therefore, we examined the apoptotic. responses in gastrocnemius muscles of young adult and aged Fischer 344 X Brown Norway rats after 14 days of HS. The medial gastrocnemius muscle wet weight significantly decreased by 30 and 32{\%}, and muscle wet weight normalized to the animal body weight decreased by 11 and 15{\%} in young adult and aged animals, respectively, after HS. The extent of apoptotic DNA fragmentation increased by 119 and 61{\%} in suspended muscles from young and aged rats, respectively. Bax mRNA increased by 73{\%} in young muscles after HS. Bax and Bcl-2 protein levels were greater in suspended muscles relative to control muscles in both age groups. The level of cytosolic mitochondria-housed apoptotic factor cytochrome c was significantly increased in the mitochondria-free cytosol of suspended muscles from young and aged rats. In contrast, the release/accumulation of AIF, a caspase-independent apoptogenic factor, was exclusively expressed in the suspended muscles from aged rats. Our data also show that aging favors the proapoptotic signaling in skeletal muscle by altering the contents of Bax, Bcl-2, Apaf-1, AIF, caspases, XIAP, Smac/DIABLO, and cytochrome c. Furthermore, these results indicate that apoptosis occurs not only in slow-twitch soleus muscle but also in the mixed-fiber (predominately fast fibered) gastrocnemius muscle. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that apoptotic signaling differs in young adult and aged gastrocnemius muscles during HS.",
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AU - Pistilli, Emidio E.

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