Artery tertiary lymphoid organs

Powerhouses of atherosclerosis immunity

Changjun Yin, Sarajo Kumar Mohanta, Prasad Srikakulapu, Christian Weber, Andreas J.R. Habenicht

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Artery tertiary lymphoid organs (ATLOs) are atherosclerosis-associated lymphoid aggregates with varying degrees of complexity ranging from small T/B-cell clusters to well-structured lymph node-like though unencapsulated lymphoid tissues. ATLOs arise in the connective tissue that surrounds diseased arteries, i.e., the adventitia. ATLOs have been identified in aged atherosclerosis-prone hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice: they are organized into distinct immune cell compartments, including separate T-cell areas, activated B-cell follicles, and plasma cell niches. Analyses of ATLO immune cell subsets indicate antigen-specific T- and B-cell immune reactions within the atherosclerotic arterial wall adventitia. Moreover, ATLOs harbor innate immune cells, including a large component of inflammatory macrophages, B-1 cells, and an aberrant set of antigen-presenting cells. There is marked neoangiogenesis, irregular lymphangiogenesis, neoformation of high endothelial venules, and de novo synthesis of lymph node-like conduits. Molecular mechanisms of ATLO formation remain to be identified though media vascular smooth muscle cells may adopt features of lymphoid tissue organizer-like cells by expressing lymphorganogenic chemokines, i.e., CXCL13 and CCL21. Although these data are consistent with the view that ATLOs participate in primary T- and B-cell responses against elusive atherosclerosis-specific autoantigens, their specific protective or disease-promoting roles remain to be identified. In this review, we discuss what is currently known about ATLOs and their potential impact on atherosclerosis and make attempts to define challenges ahead.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number387
JournalFrontiers in immunology
Volume7
Issue numberOCT
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 10 2016

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Immunity
Atherosclerosis
Arteries
B-Lymphocytes
Adventitia
Lymphoid Tissue
Chemokine CXCL13
Chemokine CCL21
Lymph Nodes
Lymphangiogenesis
Connective Tissue Diseases
Venules
Viral Tumor Antigens
Autoantigens
Apolipoproteins E
Antigen-Presenting Cells
Plasma Cells
Vascular Smooth Muscle
Smooth Muscle Myocytes
Macrophages

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

Cite this

Artery tertiary lymphoid organs : Powerhouses of atherosclerosis immunity. / Yin, Changjun; Mohanta, Sarajo Kumar; Srikakulapu, Prasad; Weber, Christian; Habenicht, Andreas J.R.

In: Frontiers in immunology, Vol. 7, No. OCT, 387, 10.10.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Yin, Changjun ; Mohanta, Sarajo Kumar ; Srikakulapu, Prasad ; Weber, Christian ; Habenicht, Andreas J.R. / Artery tertiary lymphoid organs : Powerhouses of atherosclerosis immunity. In: Frontiers in immunology. 2016 ; Vol. 7, No. OCT.
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