Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Clinical Features and Treatment Options

Candace Brown, Stephen C. Cooke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous disorder of unknown aetiology. It usually affects school-aged children with an estimated prevalence of 3 to 6%. ADHD is characterised by a core of symptoms that include short attention span, easy distractibility and social impulsivity. Stimulants continue to be the most efficacious and least toxic agents used to treat the disorder in the majority of children, and are the drugs of choice in children in whom cardiovascular status is questioned. Tricyclic antidepressants are also effective and are especially beneficial in individuals who are resistant to stimulants or in whom ADHD is accompanied by comorbid depression, anxiety, enuresis, tic disorders, substance abuse or sleep disturbance. Other antidepressants such as clorgiline (clorgyline), nortriptyline, fluoxetine and monoamine oxidase inhibitors have also been shown to reduce ADHD symptomatology. These agents may provide therapeutic options in the future. Adverse effects associated with stimulants include decreased appetite, insomnia, gastrointestinal upset, headache and potential growth suppression. Tricyclic antidepressants may cause drowsiness, anticholinergic effects and cardiovascular changes. Tolerance does not development with stimulants but may occur with tricyclic antidepressants.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)95-106
Number of pages12
JournalCNS Drugs
Volume1
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1994

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Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
Tricyclic Antidepressive Agents
Clorgyline
Tic Disorders
Nortriptyline
Enuresis
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
Impulsive Behavior
Sleep Stages
Fluoxetine
Poisons
Cholinergic Antagonists
Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
Appetite
Therapeutics
Antidepressive Agents
Substance-Related Disorders
Headache
Sleep
Anxiety

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Pharmacology (medical)

Cite this

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder : Clinical Features and Treatment Options. / Brown, Candace; Cooke, Stephen C.

In: CNS Drugs, Vol. 1, No. 2, 01.01.1994, p. 95-106.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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