Biochemical markers in vascular cognitive impairment associated with subcortical small vessel disease - A consensus report

A. Wallin, E. Kapaki, M. Boban, S. Engelborghs, D. M. Hermann, B. Huisa, M. Jonsson, M. G. Kramberger, L. Lossi, B. Malojcic, S. Mehrabian, A. Merighi, E. B. Mukaetova-Ladinska, G. P. Paraskevas, B. O. Popescu, R. Ravid, L. Traykov, Georgios Tsivgoulis, G. Weinstein, A. Korczyn & 2 others M. Bjerke, G. Rosenberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background: Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is a heterogeneous entity with multiple aetiologies, all linked to underlying vascular disease. Among these, VCI related to subcortical small vessel disease (SSVD) is emerging as a major homogeneous subtype. Its progressive course raises the need for biomarker identification and/or development for adequate therapeutic interventions to be tested. In order to shed light in the current status on biochemical markers for VCI-SSVD, experts in field reviewed the recent evidence and literature data. Method: The group conducted a comprehensive search on Medline, PubMed and Embase databases for studies published until 15.01.2017. The proposal on current status of biochemical markers in VCI-SSVD was reviewed by all co-authors and the draft was repeatedly circulated and discussed before it was finalized. Results: This review identifies a large number of biochemical markers derived from CSF and blood. There is a considerable overlap of VCI-SSVD clinical symptoms with those of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although most of the published studies are small and their findings remain to be replicated in larger cohorts, several biomarkers have shown promise in separating VCI-SSVD from AD. These promising biomarkers are closely linked to underlying SSVD pathophysiology, namely disruption of blood-CSF and blood-brain barriers (BCB-BBB) and breakdown of white matter myelinated fibres and extracellular matrix, as well as blood and brain inflammation. The leading biomarker candidates are: elevated CSF/blood albumin ratio, which reflects BCB/BBB disruption; altered CSF matrix metalloproteinases, reflecting extracellular matrix breakdown; CSF neurofilment as a marker of axonal damage, and possibly blood inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules. The suggested SSVD biomarker deviations contrasts the characteristic CSF profile in AD, i.e. depletion of amyloid beta peptide and increased phosphorylated and total tau. Conclusions: Combining SSVD and AD biomarkers may provide a powerful tool to identify with greater precision appropriate patients for clinical trials of more homogeneous dementia populations. Thereby, biomarkers might promote therapeutic progress not only in VCI-SSVD, but also in AD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number102
JournalBMC neurology
Volume17
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - May 23 2017

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Blood Vessels
Consensus
Biomarkers
Alzheimer Disease
Extracellular Matrix
Cognitive Dysfunction
Amyloid beta-Peptides
Encephalitis
Blood-Brain Barrier
Matrix Metalloproteinases
Vascular Diseases
PubMed
Dementia
Albumins
Clinical Trials
Databases
Cytokines
Therapeutics
Population

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Clinical Neurology

Cite this

Wallin, A., Kapaki, E., Boban, M., Engelborghs, S., Hermann, D. M., Huisa, B., ... Rosenberg, G. (2017). Biochemical markers in vascular cognitive impairment associated with subcortical small vessel disease - A consensus report. BMC neurology, 17(1), [102]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12883-017-0877-3

Biochemical markers in vascular cognitive impairment associated with subcortical small vessel disease - A consensus report. / Wallin, A.; Kapaki, E.; Boban, M.; Engelborghs, S.; Hermann, D. M.; Huisa, B.; Jonsson, M.; Kramberger, M. G.; Lossi, L.; Malojcic, B.; Mehrabian, S.; Merighi, A.; Mukaetova-Ladinska, E. B.; Paraskevas, G. P.; Popescu, B. O.; Ravid, R.; Traykov, L.; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Weinstein, G.; Korczyn, A.; Bjerke, M.; Rosenberg, G.

In: BMC neurology, Vol. 17, No. 1, 102, 23.05.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wallin, A, Kapaki, E, Boban, M, Engelborghs, S, Hermann, DM, Huisa, B, Jonsson, M, Kramberger, MG, Lossi, L, Malojcic, B, Mehrabian, S, Merighi, A, Mukaetova-Ladinska, EB, Paraskevas, GP, Popescu, BO, Ravid, R, Traykov, L, Tsivgoulis, G, Weinstein, G, Korczyn, A, Bjerke, M & Rosenberg, G 2017, 'Biochemical markers in vascular cognitive impairment associated with subcortical small vessel disease - A consensus report', BMC neurology, vol. 17, no. 1, 102. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12883-017-0877-3
Wallin, A. ; Kapaki, E. ; Boban, M. ; Engelborghs, S. ; Hermann, D. M. ; Huisa, B. ; Jonsson, M. ; Kramberger, M. G. ; Lossi, L. ; Malojcic, B. ; Mehrabian, S. ; Merighi, A. ; Mukaetova-Ladinska, E. B. ; Paraskevas, G. P. ; Popescu, B. O. ; Ravid, R. ; Traykov, L. ; Tsivgoulis, Georgios ; Weinstein, G. ; Korczyn, A. ; Bjerke, M. ; Rosenberg, G. / Biochemical markers in vascular cognitive impairment associated with subcortical small vessel disease - A consensus report. In: BMC neurology. 2017 ; Vol. 17, No. 1.
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abstract = "Background: Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is a heterogeneous entity with multiple aetiologies, all linked to underlying vascular disease. Among these, VCI related to subcortical small vessel disease (SSVD) is emerging as a major homogeneous subtype. Its progressive course raises the need for biomarker identification and/or development for adequate therapeutic interventions to be tested. In order to shed light in the current status on biochemical markers for VCI-SSVD, experts in field reviewed the recent evidence and literature data. Method: The group conducted a comprehensive search on Medline, PubMed and Embase databases for studies published until 15.01.2017. The proposal on current status of biochemical markers in VCI-SSVD was reviewed by all co-authors and the draft was repeatedly circulated and discussed before it was finalized. Results: This review identifies a large number of biochemical markers derived from CSF and blood. There is a considerable overlap of VCI-SSVD clinical symptoms with those of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although most of the published studies are small and their findings remain to be replicated in larger cohorts, several biomarkers have shown promise in separating VCI-SSVD from AD. These promising biomarkers are closely linked to underlying SSVD pathophysiology, namely disruption of blood-CSF and blood-brain barriers (BCB-BBB) and breakdown of white matter myelinated fibres and extracellular matrix, as well as blood and brain inflammation. The leading biomarker candidates are: elevated CSF/blood albumin ratio, which reflects BCB/BBB disruption; altered CSF matrix metalloproteinases, reflecting extracellular matrix breakdown; CSF neurofilment as a marker of axonal damage, and possibly blood inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules. The suggested SSVD biomarker deviations contrasts the characteristic CSF profile in AD, i.e. depletion of amyloid beta peptide and increased phosphorylated and total tau. Conclusions: Combining SSVD and AD biomarkers may provide a powerful tool to identify with greater precision appropriate patients for clinical trials of more homogeneous dementia populations. Thereby, biomarkers might promote therapeutic progress not only in VCI-SSVD, but also in AD.",
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T1 - Biochemical markers in vascular cognitive impairment associated with subcortical small vessel disease - A consensus report

AU - Wallin, A.

AU - Kapaki, E.

AU - Boban, M.

AU - Engelborghs, S.

AU - Hermann, D. M.

AU - Huisa, B.

AU - Jonsson, M.

AU - Kramberger, M. G.

AU - Lossi, L.

AU - Malojcic, B.

AU - Mehrabian, S.

AU - Merighi, A.

AU - Mukaetova-Ladinska, E. B.

AU - Paraskevas, G. P.

AU - Popescu, B. O.

AU - Ravid, R.

AU - Traykov, L.

AU - Tsivgoulis, Georgios

AU - Weinstein, G.

AU - Korczyn, A.

AU - Bjerke, M.

AU - Rosenberg, G.

PY - 2017/5/23

Y1 - 2017/5/23

N2 - Background: Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is a heterogeneous entity with multiple aetiologies, all linked to underlying vascular disease. Among these, VCI related to subcortical small vessel disease (SSVD) is emerging as a major homogeneous subtype. Its progressive course raises the need for biomarker identification and/or development for adequate therapeutic interventions to be tested. In order to shed light in the current status on biochemical markers for VCI-SSVD, experts in field reviewed the recent evidence and literature data. Method: The group conducted a comprehensive search on Medline, PubMed and Embase databases for studies published until 15.01.2017. The proposal on current status of biochemical markers in VCI-SSVD was reviewed by all co-authors and the draft was repeatedly circulated and discussed before it was finalized. Results: This review identifies a large number of biochemical markers derived from CSF and blood. There is a considerable overlap of VCI-SSVD clinical symptoms with those of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although most of the published studies are small and their findings remain to be replicated in larger cohorts, several biomarkers have shown promise in separating VCI-SSVD from AD. These promising biomarkers are closely linked to underlying SSVD pathophysiology, namely disruption of blood-CSF and blood-brain barriers (BCB-BBB) and breakdown of white matter myelinated fibres and extracellular matrix, as well as blood and brain inflammation. The leading biomarker candidates are: elevated CSF/blood albumin ratio, which reflects BCB/BBB disruption; altered CSF matrix metalloproteinases, reflecting extracellular matrix breakdown; CSF neurofilment as a marker of axonal damage, and possibly blood inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules. The suggested SSVD biomarker deviations contrasts the characteristic CSF profile in AD, i.e. depletion of amyloid beta peptide and increased phosphorylated and total tau. Conclusions: Combining SSVD and AD biomarkers may provide a powerful tool to identify with greater precision appropriate patients for clinical trials of more homogeneous dementia populations. Thereby, biomarkers might promote therapeutic progress not only in VCI-SSVD, but also in AD.

AB - Background: Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is a heterogeneous entity with multiple aetiologies, all linked to underlying vascular disease. Among these, VCI related to subcortical small vessel disease (SSVD) is emerging as a major homogeneous subtype. Its progressive course raises the need for biomarker identification and/or development for adequate therapeutic interventions to be tested. In order to shed light in the current status on biochemical markers for VCI-SSVD, experts in field reviewed the recent evidence and literature data. Method: The group conducted a comprehensive search on Medline, PubMed and Embase databases for studies published until 15.01.2017. The proposal on current status of biochemical markers in VCI-SSVD was reviewed by all co-authors and the draft was repeatedly circulated and discussed before it was finalized. Results: This review identifies a large number of biochemical markers derived from CSF and blood. There is a considerable overlap of VCI-SSVD clinical symptoms with those of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although most of the published studies are small and their findings remain to be replicated in larger cohorts, several biomarkers have shown promise in separating VCI-SSVD from AD. These promising biomarkers are closely linked to underlying SSVD pathophysiology, namely disruption of blood-CSF and blood-brain barriers (BCB-BBB) and breakdown of white matter myelinated fibres and extracellular matrix, as well as blood and brain inflammation. The leading biomarker candidates are: elevated CSF/blood albumin ratio, which reflects BCB/BBB disruption; altered CSF matrix metalloproteinases, reflecting extracellular matrix breakdown; CSF neurofilment as a marker of axonal damage, and possibly blood inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules. The suggested SSVD biomarker deviations contrasts the characteristic CSF profile in AD, i.e. depletion of amyloid beta peptide and increased phosphorylated and total tau. Conclusions: Combining SSVD and AD biomarkers may provide a powerful tool to identify with greater precision appropriate patients for clinical trials of more homogeneous dementia populations. Thereby, biomarkers might promote therapeutic progress not only in VCI-SSVD, but also in AD.

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