Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci

Stephan Ripke, Benjamin M. Neale, Aiden Corvin, James T.R. Walters, Kai How Farh, Peter A. Holmans, Phil Lee, Brendan Bulik-Sullivan, David A. Collier, Hailiang Huang, Tune H. Pers, Ingrid Agartz, Esben Agerbo, Margot Albus, Madeline Alexander, Farooq Amin, Silviu A. Bacanu, Martin Begemann, Richard A. Belliveau, Judit Bene & 280 others Sarah E. Bergen, Elizabeth Bevilacqua, Tim B. Bigdeli, Donald W. Black, Richard Bruggeman, Nancy G. Buccola, Randy L. Buckner, William Byerley, Wiepke Cahn, Guiqing Cai, Dominique Campion, Rita M. Cantor, Vaughan J. Carr, Noa Carrera, Stanley V. Catts, Kimberly D. Chambert, Raymond C.K. Chan, Ronald Y.L. Chen, Eric Y.H. Chen, Wei Cheng, Eric F.C. Cheung, Siow Ann Chong, C. Robert Cloninger, David Cohen, Nadine Cohen, Paul Cormican, Nick Craddock, James J. Crowley, David Curtis, Michael Davidson, Kenneth L. Davis, Franziska Degenhardt, Jurgen Del Favero, Ditte Demontis, Dimitris Dikeos, Timothy Dinan, Srdjan Djurovic, Gary Donohoe, Elodie Drapeau, Jubao Duan, Frank Dudbridge, Naser Durmishi, Peter Eichhammer, Johan Eriksson, Valentina Escott-Price, Laurent Essioux, Ayman H. Fanous, Martilias S. Farrell, Josef Frank, Lude Franke, Robert Freedman, Nelson B. Freimer, Marion Friedl, Joseph I. Friedman, Menachem Fromer, Giulio Genovese, Lyudmila Georgieva, Ina Giegling, Paola Giusti-Rodríguez, Stephanie Godard, Jacqueline I. Goldstein, Vera Golimbet, Srihari Gopal, Jacob Gratten, Lieuwe De Haan, Christian Hammer, Marian L. Hamshere, Mark Hansen, Thomas Hansen, Vahram Haroutunian, Annette M. Hartmann, Frans A. Henskens, Stefan Herms, Joel N. Hirschhorn, Per Hoffmann, Andrea Hofman, Mads V. Hollegaard, David M. Hougaard, Masashi Ikeda, Inge Joa, Antonio Julià, René S. Kahn, Luba Kalaydjieva, Sena Karachanak-Yankova, Juha Karjalainen, David Kavanagh, Matthew C. Keller, James L. Kennedy, Andrey Khrunin, Yunjung Kim, Janis Klovins, James A. Knowles, Bettina Konte, Vaidutis Kucinskas, Zita Ausrele Kucinskiene, Hana Kuzelova-Ptackova, Anna K. Kähler, Claudine Laurent, Jimmy Lee Chee Keong, S. Hong Lee, Sophie E. Legge, Bernard Lerer, Miaoxin Li, Tao Li, Kung Yee Liang, Jeffrey Lieberman, Svetlana Limborska, Carmel M. Loughland, Jan Lubinski, Jouko Lönnqvist, Milan Macek, Patrik K.E. Magnusson, Brion S. Maher, Wolfgang Maier, Jacques Mallet, Sara Marsal, Manuel Mattheisen, Morten Mattingsdal, Robert W. McCarley, Colm McDonald, Andrew M. McIntosh, Sandra Meier, Carin J. Meijer, Bela Melegh, Ingrid Melle, Raquelle I. Mesholam-Gately, Andres Metspalu, Patricia T. Michie, Lili Milani, Vihra Milanova, Younes Mokrab, Derek W. Morris, Ole Mors, Kieran C. Murphy, Robin M. Murray, Inez Myin-Germeys, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Mari Nelis, Igor Nenadic, Deborah A. Nertney, Gerald Nestadt, Kristin K. Nicodemus, Liene Nikitina-Zake, Laura Nisenbaum, Annelie Nordin, Eadbhard O'Callaghan, Colm O'Dushlaine, F. Anthony O'Neill, Sang Yun Oh, Ann Olincy, Line Olsen, Jim Van Os, Christos Pantelis, George N. Papadimitriou, Sergi Papiol, Elena Parkhomenko, Michele T. Pato, Tiina Paunio, Milica Pejovic-Milovancevic, Diana O. Perkins, Olli Pietiläinen, Jonathan Pimm, Andrew J. Pocklington, John Powell, Alkes Price, Ann E. Pulver, Shaun M. Purcell, Digby Quested, Henrik B. Rasmussen, Abraham Reichenberg, Mark A. Reimers, Alexander L. Richards, Joshua L. Roffman, Panos Roussos, Douglas M. Ruderfer, Veikko Salomaa, Alan R. Sanders, Ulrich Schall, Christian R. Schubert, Thomas G. Schulze, Sibylle G. Schwab, Edward M. Scolnick, Rodney J. Scott, Larry J. Seidman, Jianxin Shi, Engilbert Sigurdsson, Teimuraz Silagadze, Jeremy M. Silverman, Kang Sim, Petr Slominsky, Jordan W. Smoller, Hon Cheong So, Chris C.A. Spencer, Eli A. Stahl, Hreinn Stefansson, Stacy Steinberg, Elisabeth Stogmann, Richard E. Straub, Eric Strengman, Jana Strohmaier, T. Scott Stroup, Mythily Subramaniam, Jaana Suvisaari, Dragan M. Svrakic, Jin P. Szatkiewicz, Erik Söderman, Srinivas Thirumalai, Draga Toncheva, Sarah Tosato, Juha Veijola, John Waddington, Dermot Walsh, Dai Wang, Qiang Wang, Bradley T. Webb, Mark Weiser, Dieter B. Wildenauer, Nigel M. Williams, Stephanie Williams, Stephanie H. Witt, Aaron Wolen, Emily H.M. Wong, Brandon K. Wormley, Hualin Simon Xi, Clement C. Zai, Xuebin Zheng, Fritz Zimprich, Naomi R. Wray, Kari Stefansson, Peter M. Visscher, Rolf Adolfsson, Ole A. Andreassen, Douglas H.R. Blackwood, Elvira Bramon, Joseph D. Buxbaum, Anders D. Børglum, Sven Cichon, Ariel Darvasi, Enrico Domenici, Hannelore Ehrenreich, Tõnu Esko, Pablo V. Gejman, Michael Gill, Hugh Gurling, Christina M. Hultman, Nakao Iwata, Assen V. Jablensky, Erik G. Jönsson, Kenneth S. Kendler, George Kirov, Jo Knight, Todd Lencz, Douglas F. Levinson, Qingqin S. Li, Jianjun Liu, Anil K. Malhotra, Steven A. McCarroll, Andrew McQuillin, Jennifer L. Moran, Preben B. Mortensen, Bryan J. Mowry, Markus M. Nöthen, Roel A. Ophoff, Michael J. Owen, Aarno Palotie, Carlos N. Pato, Tracey L. Petryshen, Danielle Posthuma, Marcella Rietschel, Brien P. Riley, Dan Rujescu, Pak C. Sham, Pamela Sklar, David St Clair, Daniel R. Weinberger, Jens R. Wendland, Thomas Werge, Mark J. Daly, Patrick F. Sullivan, Michael C. O'Donovan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2825 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder. Genetic risk is conferred by a large number of alleles, including common alleles of small effect that might be detected by genome-wide association studies. Here we report a multi-stage schizophrenia genome-wide association study of up to 36,989 cases and 113,075 controls. We identify 128 independent associations spanning 108 conservatively defined loci that meet genome-wide significance, 83 of which have not been previously reported. Associations were enriched among genes expressed in brain, providing biological plausibility for the findings. Many findings have the potential to provide entirely new insights into aetiology, but associations at DRD2 and several genes involved in glutamatergic neurotransmission highlight molecules of known and potential therapeutic relevance to schizophrenia, and are consistent with leading pathophysiological hypotheses. Independent of genes expressed in brain, associations were enriched among genes expressed in tissues that have important roles in immunity, providing support for the speculated link between the immune system and schizophrenia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)421-427
Number of pages7
JournalNature
Volume511
Issue number7510
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014

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Genetic Loci
Schizophrenia
Genome-Wide Association Study
Genes
Alleles
Brain
Synaptic Transmission
Immune System
Immunity
Genome
Therapeutics

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General

Cite this

Ripke, S., Neale, B. M., Corvin, A., Walters, J. T. R., Farh, K. H., Holmans, P. A., ... O'Donovan, M. C. (2014). Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci. Nature, 511(7510), 421-427. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13595

Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci. / Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M.; Corvin, Aiden; Walters, James T.R.; Farh, Kai How; Holmans, Peter A.; Lee, Phil; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Collier, David A.; Huang, Hailiang; Pers, Tune H.; Agartz, Ingrid; Agerbo, Esben; Albus, Margot; Alexander, Madeline; Amin, Farooq; Bacanu, Silviu A.; Begemann, Martin; Belliveau, Richard A.; Bene, Judit; Bergen, Sarah E.; Bevilacqua, Elizabeth; Bigdeli, Tim B.; Black, Donald W.; Bruggeman, Richard; Buccola, Nancy G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Byerley, William; Cahn, Wiepke; Cai, Guiqing; Campion, Dominique; Cantor, Rita M.; Carr, Vaughan J.; Carrera, Noa; Catts, Stanley V.; Chambert, Kimberly D.; Chan, Raymond C.K.; Chen, Ronald Y.L.; Chen, Eric Y.H.; Cheng, Wei; Cheung, Eric F.C.; Chong, Siow Ann; Cloninger, C. Robert; Cohen, David; Cohen, Nadine; Cormican, Paul; Craddock, Nick; Crowley, James J.; Curtis, David; Davidson, Michael; Davis, Kenneth L.; Degenhardt, Franziska; Del Favero, Jurgen; Demontis, Ditte; Dikeos, Dimitris; Dinan, Timothy; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drapeau, Elodie; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Durmishi, Naser; Eichhammer, Peter; Eriksson, Johan; Escott-Price, Valentina; Essioux, Laurent; Fanous, Ayman H.; Farrell, Martilias S.; Frank, Josef; Franke, Lude; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Friedl, Marion; Friedman, Joseph I.; Fromer, Menachem; Genovese, Giulio; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Giegling, Ina; Giusti-Rodríguez, Paola; Godard, Stephanie; Goldstein, Jacqueline I.; Golimbet, Vera; Gopal, Srihari; Gratten, Jacob; De Haan, Lieuwe; Hammer, Christian; Hamshere, Marian L.; Hansen, Mark; Hansen, Thomas; Haroutunian, Vahram; Hartmann, Annette M.; Henskens, Frans A.; Herms, Stefan; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hoffmann, Per; Hofman, Andrea; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Ikeda, Masashi; Joa, Inge; Julià, Antonio; Kahn, René S.; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Karjalainen, Juha; Kavanagh, David; Keller, Matthew C.; Kennedy, James L.; Khrunin, Andrey; Kim, Yunjung; Klovins, Janis; Knowles, James A.; Konte, Bettina; Kucinskas, Vaidutis; Kucinskiene, Zita Ausrele; Kuzelova-Ptackova, Hana; Kähler, Anna K.; Laurent, Claudine; Keong, Jimmy Lee Chee; Lee, S. Hong; Legge, Sophie E.; Lerer, Bernard; Li, Miaoxin; Li, Tao; Liang, Kung Yee; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Limborska, Svetlana; Loughland, Carmel M.; Lubinski, Jan; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Macek, Milan; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Maher, Brion S.; Maier, Wolfgang; Mallet, Jacques; Marsal, Sara; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarley, Robert W.; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Meier, Sandra; Meijer, Carin J.; Melegh, Bela; Melle, Ingrid; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I.; Metspalu, Andres; Michie, Patricia T.; Milani, Lili; Milanova, Vihra; Mokrab, Younes; Morris, Derek W.; Mors, Ole; Murphy, Kieran C.; Murray, Robin M.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nelis, Mari; Nenadic, Igor; Nertney, Deborah A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Nicodemus, Kristin K.; Nikitina-Zake, Liene; Nisenbaum, Laura; Nordin, Annelie; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard; O'Dushlaine, Colm; O'Neill, F. Anthony; Oh, Sang Yun; Olincy, Ann; Olsen, Line; Van Os, Jim; Pantelis, Christos; Papadimitriou, George N.; Papiol, Sergi; Parkhomenko, Elena; Pato, Michele T.; Paunio, Tiina; Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica; Perkins, Diana O.; Pietiläinen, Olli; Pimm, Jonathan; Pocklington, Andrew J.; Powell, John; Price, Alkes; Pulver, Ann E.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Quested, Digby; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Reichenberg, Abraham; Reimers, Mark A.; Richards, Alexander L.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Roussos, Panos; Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Schall, Ulrich; Schubert, Christian R.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schwab, Sibylle G.; Scolnick, Edward M.; Scott, Rodney J.; Seidman, Larry J.; Shi, Jianxin; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Silagadze, Teimuraz; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sim, Kang; Slominsky, Petr; Smoller, Jordan W.; So, Hon Cheong; Spencer, Chris C.A.; Stahl, Eli A.; Stefansson, Hreinn; Steinberg, Stacy; Stogmann, Elisabeth; Straub, Richard E.; Strengman, Eric; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T. Scott; Subramaniam, Mythily; Suvisaari, Jaana; Svrakic, Dragan M.; Szatkiewicz, Jin P.; Söderman, Erik; Thirumalai, Srinivas; Toncheva, Draga; Tosato, Sarah; Veijola, Juha; Waddington, John; Walsh, Dermot; Wang, Dai; Wang, Qiang; Webb, Bradley T.; Weiser, Mark; Wildenauer, Dieter B.; Williams, Nigel M.; Williams, Stephanie; Witt, Stephanie H.; Wolen, Aaron; Wong, Emily H.M.; Wormley, Brandon K.; Xi, Hualin Simon; Zai, Clement C.; Zheng, Xuebin; Zimprich, Fritz; Wray, Naomi R.; Stefansson, Kari; Visscher, Peter M.; Adolfsson, Rolf; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blackwood, Douglas H.R.; Bramon, Elvira; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Børglum, Anders D.; Cichon, Sven; Darvasi, Ariel; Domenici, Enrico; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Esko, Tõnu; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gill, Michael; Gurling, Hugh; Hultman, Christina M.; Iwata, Nakao; Jablensky, Assen V.; Jönsson, Erik G.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kirov, George; Knight, Jo; Lencz, Todd; Levinson, Douglas F.; Li, Qingqin S.; Liu, Jianjun; Malhotra, Anil K.; McCarroll, Steven A.; McQuillin, Andrew; Moran, Jennifer L.; Mortensen, Preben B.; Mowry, Bryan J.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Pato, Carlos N.; Petryshen, Tracey L.; Posthuma, Danielle; Rietschel, Marcella; Riley, Brien P.; Rujescu, Dan; Sham, Pak C.; Sklar, Pamela; St Clair, David; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Wendland, Jens R.; Werge, Thomas; Daly, Mark J.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; O'Donovan, Michael C.

In: Nature, Vol. 511, No. 7510, 01.01.2014, p. 421-427.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ripke, S, Neale, BM, Corvin, A, Walters, JTR, Farh, KH, Holmans, PA, Lee, P, Bulik-Sullivan, B, Collier, DA, Huang, H, Pers, TH, Agartz, I, Agerbo, E, Albus, M, Alexander, M, Amin, F, Bacanu, SA, Begemann, M, Belliveau, RA, Bene, J, Bergen, SE, Bevilacqua, E, Bigdeli, TB, Black, DW, Bruggeman, R, Buccola, NG, Buckner, RL, Byerley, W, Cahn, W, Cai, G, Campion, D, Cantor, RM, Carr, VJ, Carrera, N, Catts, SV, Chambert, KD, Chan, RCK, Chen, RYL, Chen, EYH, Cheng, W, Cheung, EFC, Chong, SA, Cloninger, CR, Cohen, D, Cohen, N, Cormican, P, Craddock, N, Crowley, JJ, Curtis, D, Davidson, M, Davis, KL, Degenhardt, F, Del Favero, J, Demontis, D, Dikeos, D, Dinan, T, Djurovic, S, Donohoe, G, Drapeau, E, Duan, J, Dudbridge, F, Durmishi, N, Eichhammer, P, Eriksson, J, Escott-Price, V, Essioux, L, Fanous, AH, Farrell, MS, Frank, J, Franke, L, Freedman, R, Freimer, NB, Friedl, M, Friedman, JI, Fromer, M, Genovese, G, Georgieva, L, Giegling, I, Giusti-Rodríguez, P, Godard, S, Goldstein, JI, Golimbet, V, Gopal, S, Gratten, J, De Haan, L, Hammer, C, Hamshere, ML, Hansen, M, Hansen, T, Haroutunian, V, Hartmann, AM, Henskens, FA, Herms, S, Hirschhorn, JN, Hoffmann, P, Hofman, A, Hollegaard, MV, Hougaard, DM, Ikeda, M, Joa, I, Julià, A, Kahn, RS, Kalaydjieva, L, Karachanak-Yankova, S, Karjalainen, J, Kavanagh, D, Keller, MC, Kennedy, JL, Khrunin, A, Kim, Y, Klovins, J, Knowles, JA, Konte, B, Kucinskas, V, Kucinskiene, ZA, Kuzelova-Ptackova, H, Kähler, AK, Laurent, C, Keong, JLC, Lee, SH, Legge, SE, Lerer, B, Li, M, Li, T, Liang, KY, Lieberman, J, Limborska, S, Loughland, CM, Lubinski, J, Lönnqvist, J, Macek, M, Magnusson, PKE, Maher, BS, Maier, W, Mallet, J, Marsal, S, Mattheisen, M, Mattingsdal, M, McCarley, RW, McDonald, C, McIntosh, AM, Meier, S, Meijer, CJ, Melegh, B, Melle, I, Mesholam-Gately, RI, Metspalu, A, Michie, PT, Milani, L, Milanova, V, Mokrab, Y, Morris, DW, Mors, O, Murphy, KC, Murray, RM, Myin-Germeys, I, Müller-Myhsok, B, Nelis, M, Nenadic, I, Nertney, DA, Nestadt, G, Nicodemus, KK, Nikitina-Zake, L, Nisenbaum, L, Nordin, A, O'Callaghan, E, O'Dushlaine, C, O'Neill, FA, Oh, SY, Olincy, A, Olsen, L, Van Os, J, Pantelis, C, Papadimitriou, GN, Papiol, S, Parkhomenko, E, Pato, MT, Paunio, T, Pejovic-Milovancevic, M, Perkins, DO, Pietiläinen, O, Pimm, J, Pocklington, AJ, Powell, J, Price, A, Pulver, AE, Purcell, SM, Quested, D, Rasmussen, HB, Reichenberg, A, Reimers, MA, Richards, AL, Roffman, JL, Roussos, P, Ruderfer, DM, Salomaa, V, Sanders, AR, Schall, U, Schubert, CR, Schulze, TG, Schwab, SG, Scolnick, EM, Scott, RJ, Seidman, LJ, Shi, J, Sigurdsson, E, Silagadze, T, Silverman, JM, Sim, K, Slominsky, P, Smoller, JW, So, HC, Spencer, CCA, Stahl, EA, Stefansson, H, Steinberg, S, Stogmann, E, Straub, RE, Strengman, E, Strohmaier, J, Stroup, TS, Subramaniam, M, Suvisaari, J, Svrakic, DM, Szatkiewicz, JP, Söderman, E, Thirumalai, S, Toncheva, D, Tosato, S, Veijola, J, Waddington, J, Walsh, D, Wang, D, Wang, Q, Webb, BT, Weiser, M, Wildenauer, DB, Williams, NM, Williams, S, Witt, SH, Wolen, A, Wong, EHM, Wormley, BK, Xi, HS, Zai, CC, Zheng, X, Zimprich, F, Wray, NR, Stefansson, K, Visscher, PM, Adolfsson, R, Andreassen, OA, Blackwood, DHR, Bramon, E, Buxbaum, JD, Børglum, AD, Cichon, S, Darvasi, A, Domenici, E, Ehrenreich, H, Esko, T, Gejman, PV, Gill, M, Gurling, H, Hultman, CM, Iwata, N, Jablensky, AV, Jönsson, EG, Kendler, KS, Kirov, G, Knight, J, Lencz, T, Levinson, DF, Li, QS, Liu, J, Malhotra, AK, McCarroll, SA, McQuillin, A, Moran, JL, Mortensen, PB, Mowry, BJ, Nöthen, MM, Ophoff, RA, Owen, MJ, Palotie, A, Pato, CN, Petryshen, TL, Posthuma, D, Rietschel, M, Riley, BP, Rujescu, D, Sham, PC, Sklar, P, St Clair, D, Weinberger, DR, Wendland, JR, Werge, T, Daly, MJ, Sullivan, PF & O'Donovan, MC 2014, 'Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci', Nature, vol. 511, no. 7510, pp. 421-427. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13595
Ripke S, Neale BM, Corvin A, Walters JTR, Farh KH, Holmans PA et al. Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci. Nature. 2014 Jan 1;511(7510):421-427. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13595
Ripke, Stephan ; Neale, Benjamin M. ; Corvin, Aiden ; Walters, James T.R. ; Farh, Kai How ; Holmans, Peter A. ; Lee, Phil ; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan ; Collier, David A. ; Huang, Hailiang ; Pers, Tune H. ; Agartz, Ingrid ; Agerbo, Esben ; Albus, Margot ; Alexander, Madeline ; Amin, Farooq ; Bacanu, Silviu A. ; Begemann, Martin ; Belliveau, Richard A. ; Bene, Judit ; Bergen, Sarah E. ; Bevilacqua, Elizabeth ; Bigdeli, Tim B. ; Black, Donald W. ; Bruggeman, Richard ; Buccola, Nancy G. ; Buckner, Randy L. ; Byerley, William ; Cahn, Wiepke ; Cai, Guiqing ; Campion, Dominique ; Cantor, Rita M. ; Carr, Vaughan J. ; Carrera, Noa ; Catts, Stanley V. ; Chambert, Kimberly D. ; Chan, Raymond C.K. ; Chen, Ronald Y.L. ; Chen, Eric Y.H. ; Cheng, Wei ; Cheung, Eric F.C. ; Chong, Siow Ann ; Cloninger, C. Robert ; Cohen, David ; Cohen, Nadine ; Cormican, Paul ; Craddock, Nick ; Crowley, James J. ; Curtis, David ; Davidson, Michael ; Davis, Kenneth L. ; Degenhardt, Franziska ; Del Favero, Jurgen ; Demontis, Ditte ; Dikeos, Dimitris ; Dinan, Timothy ; Djurovic, Srdjan ; Donohoe, Gary ; Drapeau, Elodie ; Duan, Jubao ; Dudbridge, Frank ; Durmishi, Naser ; Eichhammer, Peter ; Eriksson, Johan ; Escott-Price, Valentina ; Essioux, Laurent ; Fanous, Ayman H. ; Farrell, Martilias S. ; Frank, Josef ; Franke, Lude ; Freedman, Robert ; Freimer, Nelson B. ; Friedl, Marion ; Friedman, Joseph I. ; Fromer, Menachem ; Genovese, Giulio ; Georgieva, Lyudmila ; Giegling, Ina ; Giusti-Rodríguez, Paola ; Godard, Stephanie ; Goldstein, Jacqueline I. ; Golimbet, Vera ; Gopal, Srihari ; Gratten, Jacob ; De Haan, Lieuwe ; Hammer, Christian ; Hamshere, Marian L. ; Hansen, Mark ; Hansen, Thomas ; Haroutunian, Vahram ; Hartmann, Annette M. ; Henskens, Frans A. ; Herms, Stefan ; Hirschhorn, Joel N. ; Hoffmann, Per ; Hofman, Andrea ; Hollegaard, Mads V. ; Hougaard, David M. ; Ikeda, Masashi ; Joa, Inge ; Julià, Antonio ; Kahn, René S. ; Kalaydjieva, Luba ; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena ; Karjalainen, Juha ; Kavanagh, David ; Keller, Matthew C. ; Kennedy, James L. ; Khrunin, Andrey ; Kim, Yunjung ; Klovins, Janis ; Knowles, James A. ; Konte, Bettina ; Kucinskas, Vaidutis ; Kucinskiene, Zita Ausrele ; Kuzelova-Ptackova, Hana ; Kähler, Anna K. ; Laurent, Claudine ; Keong, Jimmy Lee Chee ; Lee, S. Hong ; Legge, Sophie E. ; Lerer, Bernard ; Li, Miaoxin ; Li, Tao ; Liang, Kung Yee ; Lieberman, Jeffrey ; Limborska, Svetlana ; Loughland, Carmel M. ; Lubinski, Jan ; Lönnqvist, Jouko ; Macek, Milan ; Magnusson, Patrik K.E. ; Maher, Brion S. ; Maier, Wolfgang ; Mallet, Jacques ; Marsal, Sara ; Mattheisen, Manuel ; Mattingsdal, Morten ; McCarley, Robert W. ; McDonald, Colm ; McIntosh, Andrew M. ; Meier, Sandra ; Meijer, Carin J. ; Melegh, Bela ; Melle, Ingrid ; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I. ; Metspalu, Andres ; Michie, Patricia T. ; Milani, Lili ; Milanova, Vihra ; Mokrab, Younes ; Morris, Derek W. ; Mors, Ole ; Murphy, Kieran C. ; Murray, Robin M. ; Myin-Germeys, Inez ; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram ; Nelis, Mari ; Nenadic, Igor ; Nertney, Deborah A. ; Nestadt, Gerald ; Nicodemus, Kristin K. ; Nikitina-Zake, Liene ; Nisenbaum, Laura ; Nordin, Annelie ; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard ; O'Dushlaine, Colm ; O'Neill, F. Anthony ; Oh, Sang Yun ; Olincy, Ann ; Olsen, Line ; Van Os, Jim ; Pantelis, Christos ; Papadimitriou, George N. ; Papiol, Sergi ; Parkhomenko, Elena ; Pato, Michele T. ; Paunio, Tiina ; Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica ; Perkins, Diana O. ; Pietiläinen, Olli ; Pimm, Jonathan ; Pocklington, Andrew J. ; Powell, John ; Price, Alkes ; Pulver, Ann E. ; Purcell, Shaun M. ; Quested, Digby ; Rasmussen, Henrik B. ; Reichenberg, Abraham ; Reimers, Mark A. ; Richards, Alexander L. ; Roffman, Joshua L. ; Roussos, Panos ; Ruderfer, Douglas M. ; Salomaa, Veikko ; Sanders, Alan R. ; Schall, Ulrich ; Schubert, Christian R. ; Schulze, Thomas G. ; Schwab, Sibylle G. ; Scolnick, Edward M. ; Scott, Rodney J. ; Seidman, Larry J. ; Shi, Jianxin ; Sigurdsson, Engilbert ; Silagadze, Teimuraz ; Silverman, Jeremy M. ; Sim, Kang ; Slominsky, Petr ; Smoller, Jordan W. ; So, Hon Cheong ; Spencer, Chris C.A. ; Stahl, Eli A. ; Stefansson, Hreinn ; Steinberg, Stacy ; Stogmann, Elisabeth ; Straub, Richard E. ; Strengman, Eric ; Strohmaier, Jana ; Stroup, T. Scott ; Subramaniam, Mythily ; Suvisaari, Jaana ; Svrakic, Dragan M. ; Szatkiewicz, Jin P. ; Söderman, Erik ; Thirumalai, Srinivas ; Toncheva, Draga ; Tosato, Sarah ; Veijola, Juha ; Waddington, John ; Walsh, Dermot ; Wang, Dai ; Wang, Qiang ; Webb, Bradley T. ; Weiser, Mark ; Wildenauer, Dieter B. ; Williams, Nigel M. ; Williams, Stephanie ; Witt, Stephanie H. ; Wolen, Aaron ; Wong, Emily H.M. ; Wormley, Brandon K. ; Xi, Hualin Simon ; Zai, Clement C. ; Zheng, Xuebin ; Zimprich, Fritz ; Wray, Naomi R. ; Stefansson, Kari ; Visscher, Peter M. ; Adolfsson, Rolf ; Andreassen, Ole A. ; Blackwood, Douglas H.R. ; Bramon, Elvira ; Buxbaum, Joseph D. ; Børglum, Anders D. ; Cichon, Sven ; Darvasi, Ariel ; Domenici, Enrico ; Ehrenreich, Hannelore ; Esko, Tõnu ; Gejman, Pablo V. ; Gill, Michael ; Gurling, Hugh ; Hultman, Christina M. ; Iwata, Nakao ; Jablensky, Assen V. ; Jönsson, Erik G. ; Kendler, Kenneth S. ; Kirov, George ; Knight, Jo ; Lencz, Todd ; Levinson, Douglas F. ; Li, Qingqin S. ; Liu, Jianjun ; Malhotra, Anil K. ; McCarroll, Steven A. ; McQuillin, Andrew ; Moran, Jennifer L. ; Mortensen, Preben B. ; Mowry, Bryan J. ; Nöthen, Markus M. ; Ophoff, Roel A. ; Owen, Michael J. ; Palotie, Aarno ; Pato, Carlos N. ; Petryshen, Tracey L. ; Posthuma, Danielle ; Rietschel, Marcella ; Riley, Brien P. ; Rujescu, Dan ; Sham, Pak C. ; Sklar, Pamela ; St Clair, David ; Weinberger, Daniel R. ; Wendland, Jens R. ; Werge, Thomas ; Daly, Mark J. ; Sullivan, Patrick F. ; O'Donovan, Michael C. / Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci. In: Nature. 2014 ; Vol. 511, No. 7510. pp. 421-427.
@article{1974e0c841c14b8b9fbdfb46ead44d27,
title = "Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci",
abstract = "Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder. Genetic risk is conferred by a large number of alleles, including common alleles of small effect that might be detected by genome-wide association studies. Here we report a multi-stage schizophrenia genome-wide association study of up to 36,989 cases and 113,075 controls. We identify 128 independent associations spanning 108 conservatively defined loci that meet genome-wide significance, 83 of which have not been previously reported. Associations were enriched among genes expressed in brain, providing biological plausibility for the findings. Many findings have the potential to provide entirely new insights into aetiology, but associations at DRD2 and several genes involved in glutamatergic neurotransmission highlight molecules of known and potential therapeutic relevance to schizophrenia, and are consistent with leading pathophysiological hypotheses. Independent of genes expressed in brain, associations were enriched among genes expressed in tissues that have important roles in immunity, providing support for the speculated link between the immune system and schizophrenia.",
author = "Stephan Ripke and Neale, {Benjamin M.} and Aiden Corvin and Walters, {James T.R.} and Farh, {Kai How} and Holmans, {Peter A.} and Phil Lee and Brendan Bulik-Sullivan and Collier, {David A.} and Hailiang Huang and Pers, {Tune H.} and Ingrid Agartz and Esben Agerbo and Margot Albus and Madeline Alexander and Farooq Amin and Bacanu, {Silviu A.} and Martin Begemann and Belliveau, {Richard A.} and Judit Bene and Bergen, {Sarah E.} and Elizabeth Bevilacqua and Bigdeli, {Tim B.} and Black, {Donald W.} and Richard Bruggeman and Buccola, {Nancy G.} and Buckner, {Randy L.} and William Byerley and Wiepke Cahn and Guiqing Cai and Dominique Campion and Cantor, {Rita M.} and Carr, {Vaughan J.} and Noa Carrera and Catts, {Stanley V.} and Chambert, {Kimberly D.} and Chan, {Raymond C.K.} and Chen, {Ronald Y.L.} and Chen, {Eric Y.H.} and Wei Cheng and Cheung, {Eric F.C.} and Chong, {Siow Ann} and Cloninger, {C. Robert} and David Cohen and Nadine Cohen and Paul Cormican and Nick Craddock and Crowley, {James J.} and David Curtis and Michael Davidson and Davis, {Kenneth L.} and Franziska Degenhardt and {Del Favero}, Jurgen and Ditte Demontis and Dimitris Dikeos and Timothy Dinan and Srdjan Djurovic and Gary Donohoe and Elodie Drapeau and Jubao Duan and Frank Dudbridge and Naser Durmishi and Peter Eichhammer and Johan Eriksson and Valentina Escott-Price and Laurent Essioux and Fanous, {Ayman H.} and Farrell, {Martilias S.} and Josef Frank and Lude Franke and Robert Freedman and Freimer, {Nelson B.} and Marion Friedl and Friedman, {Joseph I.} and Menachem Fromer and Giulio Genovese and Lyudmila Georgieva and Ina Giegling and Paola Giusti-Rodr{\'i}guez and Stephanie Godard and Goldstein, {Jacqueline I.} and Vera Golimbet and Srihari Gopal and Jacob Gratten and {De Haan}, Lieuwe and Christian Hammer and Hamshere, {Marian L.} and Mark Hansen and Thomas Hansen and Vahram Haroutunian and Hartmann, {Annette M.} and Henskens, {Frans A.} and Stefan Herms and Hirschhorn, {Joel N.} and Per Hoffmann and Andrea Hofman and Hollegaard, {Mads V.} and Hougaard, {David M.} and Masashi Ikeda and Inge Joa and Antonio Juli{\`a} and Kahn, {Ren{\'e} S.} and Luba Kalaydjieva and Sena Karachanak-Yankova and Juha Karjalainen and David Kavanagh and Keller, {Matthew C.} and Kennedy, {James L.} and Andrey Khrunin and Yunjung Kim and Janis Klovins and Knowles, {James A.} and Bettina Konte and Vaidutis Kucinskas and Kucinskiene, {Zita Ausrele} and Hana Kuzelova-Ptackova and K{\"a}hler, {Anna K.} and Claudine Laurent and Keong, {Jimmy Lee Chee} and Lee, {S. Hong} and Legge, {Sophie E.} and Bernard Lerer and Miaoxin Li and Tao Li and Liang, {Kung Yee} and Jeffrey Lieberman and Svetlana Limborska and Loughland, {Carmel M.} and Jan Lubinski and Jouko L{\"o}nnqvist and Milan Macek and Magnusson, {Patrik K.E.} and Maher, {Brion S.} and Wolfgang Maier and Jacques Mallet and Sara Marsal and Manuel Mattheisen and Morten Mattingsdal and McCarley, {Robert W.} and Colm McDonald and McIntosh, {Andrew M.} and Sandra Meier and Meijer, {Carin J.} and Bela Melegh and Ingrid Melle and Mesholam-Gately, {Raquelle I.} and Andres Metspalu and Michie, {Patricia T.} and Lili Milani and Vihra Milanova and Younes Mokrab and Morris, {Derek W.} and Ole Mors and Murphy, {Kieran C.} and Murray, {Robin M.} and Inez Myin-Germeys and Bertram M{\"u}ller-Myhsok and Mari Nelis and Igor Nenadic and Nertney, {Deborah A.} and Gerald Nestadt and Nicodemus, {Kristin K.} and Liene Nikitina-Zake and Laura Nisenbaum and Annelie Nordin and Eadbhard O'Callaghan and Colm O'Dushlaine and O'Neill, {F. Anthony} and Oh, {Sang Yun} and Ann Olincy and Line Olsen and {Van Os}, Jim and Christos Pantelis and Papadimitriou, {George N.} and Sergi Papiol and Elena Parkhomenko and Pato, {Michele T.} and Tiina Paunio and Milica Pejovic-Milovancevic and Perkins, {Diana O.} and Olli Pietil{\"a}inen and Jonathan Pimm and Pocklington, {Andrew J.} and John Powell and Alkes Price and Pulver, {Ann E.} and Purcell, {Shaun M.} and Digby Quested and Rasmussen, {Henrik B.} and Abraham Reichenberg and Reimers, {Mark A.} and Richards, {Alexander L.} and Roffman, {Joshua L.} and Panos Roussos and Ruderfer, {Douglas M.} and Veikko Salomaa and Sanders, {Alan R.} and Ulrich Schall and Schubert, {Christian R.} and Schulze, {Thomas G.} and Schwab, {Sibylle G.} and Scolnick, {Edward M.} and Scott, {Rodney J.} and Seidman, {Larry J.} and Jianxin Shi and Engilbert Sigurdsson and Teimuraz Silagadze and Silverman, {Jeremy M.} and Kang Sim and Petr Slominsky and Smoller, {Jordan W.} and So, {Hon Cheong} and Spencer, {Chris C.A.} and Stahl, {Eli A.} and Hreinn Stefansson and Stacy Steinberg and Elisabeth Stogmann and Straub, {Richard E.} and Eric Strengman and Jana Strohmaier and Stroup, {T. Scott} and Mythily Subramaniam and Jaana Suvisaari and Svrakic, {Dragan M.} and Szatkiewicz, {Jin P.} and Erik S{\"o}derman and Srinivas Thirumalai and Draga Toncheva and Sarah Tosato and Juha Veijola and John Waddington and Dermot Walsh and Dai Wang and Qiang Wang and Webb, {Bradley T.} and Mark Weiser and Wildenauer, {Dieter B.} and Williams, {Nigel M.} and Stephanie Williams and Witt, {Stephanie H.} and Aaron Wolen and Wong, {Emily H.M.} and Wormley, {Brandon K.} and Xi, {Hualin Simon} and Zai, {Clement C.} and Xuebin Zheng and Fritz Zimprich and Wray, {Naomi R.} and Kari Stefansson and Visscher, {Peter M.} and Rolf Adolfsson and Andreassen, {Ole A.} and Blackwood, {Douglas H.R.} and Elvira Bramon and Buxbaum, {Joseph D.} and B{\o}rglum, {Anders D.} and Sven Cichon and Ariel Darvasi and Enrico Domenici and Hannelore Ehrenreich and T{\~o}nu Esko and Gejman, {Pablo V.} and Michael Gill and Hugh Gurling and Hultman, {Christina M.} and Nakao Iwata and Jablensky, {Assen V.} and J{\"o}nsson, {Erik G.} and Kendler, {Kenneth S.} and George Kirov and Jo Knight and Todd Lencz and Levinson, {Douglas F.} and Li, {Qingqin S.} and Jianjun Liu and Malhotra, {Anil K.} and McCarroll, {Steven A.} and Andrew McQuillin and Moran, {Jennifer L.} and Mortensen, {Preben B.} and Mowry, {Bryan J.} and N{\"o}then, {Markus M.} and Ophoff, {Roel A.} and Owen, {Michael J.} and Aarno Palotie and Pato, {Carlos N.} and Petryshen, {Tracey L.} and Danielle Posthuma and Marcella Rietschel and Riley, {Brien P.} and Dan Rujescu and Sham, {Pak C.} and Pamela Sklar and {St Clair}, David and Weinberger, {Daniel R.} and Wendland, {Jens R.} and Thomas Werge and Daly, {Mark J.} and Sullivan, {Patrick F.} and O'Donovan, {Michael C.}",
year = "2014",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1038/nature13595",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "511",
pages = "421--427",
journal = "Nature",
issn = "0028-0836",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
number = "7510",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci

AU - Ripke, Stephan

AU - Neale, Benjamin M.

AU - Corvin, Aiden

AU - Walters, James T.R.

AU - Farh, Kai How

AU - Holmans, Peter A.

AU - Lee, Phil

AU - Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan

AU - Collier, David A.

AU - Huang, Hailiang

AU - Pers, Tune H.

AU - Agartz, Ingrid

AU - Agerbo, Esben

AU - Albus, Margot

AU - Alexander, Madeline

AU - Amin, Farooq

AU - Bacanu, Silviu A.

AU - Begemann, Martin

AU - Belliveau, Richard A.

AU - Bene, Judit

AU - Bergen, Sarah E.

AU - Bevilacqua, Elizabeth

AU - Bigdeli, Tim B.

AU - Black, Donald W.

AU - Bruggeman, Richard

AU - Buccola, Nancy G.

AU - Buckner, Randy L.

AU - Byerley, William

AU - Cahn, Wiepke

AU - Cai, Guiqing

AU - Campion, Dominique

AU - Cantor, Rita M.

AU - Carr, Vaughan J.

AU - Carrera, Noa

AU - Catts, Stanley V.

AU - Chambert, Kimberly D.

AU - Chan, Raymond C.K.

AU - Chen, Ronald Y.L.

AU - Chen, Eric Y.H.

AU - Cheng, Wei

AU - Cheung, Eric F.C.

AU - Chong, Siow Ann

AU - Cloninger, C. Robert

AU - Cohen, David

AU - Cohen, Nadine

AU - Cormican, Paul

AU - Craddock, Nick

AU - Crowley, James J.

AU - Curtis, David

AU - Davidson, Michael

AU - Davis, Kenneth L.

AU - Degenhardt, Franziska

AU - Del Favero, Jurgen

AU - Demontis, Ditte

AU - Dikeos, Dimitris

AU - Dinan, Timothy

AU - Djurovic, Srdjan

AU - Donohoe, Gary

AU - Drapeau, Elodie

AU - Duan, Jubao

AU - Dudbridge, Frank

AU - Durmishi, Naser

AU - Eichhammer, Peter

AU - Eriksson, Johan

AU - Escott-Price, Valentina

AU - Essioux, Laurent

AU - Fanous, Ayman H.

AU - Farrell, Martilias S.

AU - Frank, Josef

AU - Franke, Lude

AU - Freedman, Robert

AU - Freimer, Nelson B.

AU - Friedl, Marion

AU - Friedman, Joseph I.

AU - Fromer, Menachem

AU - Genovese, Giulio

AU - Georgieva, Lyudmila

AU - Giegling, Ina

AU - Giusti-Rodríguez, Paola

AU - Godard, Stephanie

AU - Goldstein, Jacqueline I.

AU - Golimbet, Vera

AU - Gopal, Srihari

AU - Gratten, Jacob

AU - De Haan, Lieuwe

AU - Hammer, Christian

AU - Hamshere, Marian L.

AU - Hansen, Mark

AU - Hansen, Thomas

AU - Haroutunian, Vahram

AU - Hartmann, Annette M.

AU - Henskens, Frans A.

AU - Herms, Stefan

AU - Hirschhorn, Joel N.

AU - Hoffmann, Per

AU - Hofman, Andrea

AU - Hollegaard, Mads V.

AU - Hougaard, David M.

AU - Ikeda, Masashi

AU - Joa, Inge

AU - Julià, Antonio

AU - Kahn, René S.

AU - Kalaydjieva, Luba

AU - Karachanak-Yankova, Sena

AU - Karjalainen, Juha

AU - Kavanagh, David

AU - Keller, Matthew C.

AU - Kennedy, James L.

AU - Khrunin, Andrey

AU - Kim, Yunjung

AU - Klovins, Janis

AU - Knowles, James A.

AU - Konte, Bettina

AU - Kucinskas, Vaidutis

AU - Kucinskiene, Zita Ausrele

AU - Kuzelova-Ptackova, Hana

AU - Kähler, Anna K.

AU - Laurent, Claudine

AU - Keong, Jimmy Lee Chee

AU - Lee, S. Hong

AU - Legge, Sophie E.

AU - Lerer, Bernard

AU - Li, Miaoxin

AU - Li, Tao

AU - Liang, Kung Yee

AU - Lieberman, Jeffrey

AU - Limborska, Svetlana

AU - Loughland, Carmel M.

AU - Lubinski, Jan

AU - Lönnqvist, Jouko

AU - Macek, Milan

AU - Magnusson, Patrik K.E.

AU - Maher, Brion S.

AU - Maier, Wolfgang

AU - Mallet, Jacques

AU - Marsal, Sara

AU - Mattheisen, Manuel

AU - Mattingsdal, Morten

AU - McCarley, Robert W.

AU - McDonald, Colm

AU - McIntosh, Andrew M.

AU - Meier, Sandra

AU - Meijer, Carin J.

AU - Melegh, Bela

AU - Melle, Ingrid

AU - Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I.

AU - Metspalu, Andres

AU - Michie, Patricia T.

AU - Milani, Lili

AU - Milanova, Vihra

AU - Mokrab, Younes

AU - Morris, Derek W.

AU - Mors, Ole

AU - Murphy, Kieran C.

AU - Murray, Robin M.

AU - Myin-Germeys, Inez

AU - Müller-Myhsok, Bertram

AU - Nelis, Mari

AU - Nenadic, Igor

AU - Nertney, Deborah A.

AU - Nestadt, Gerald

AU - Nicodemus, Kristin K.

AU - Nikitina-Zake, Liene

AU - Nisenbaum, Laura

AU - Nordin, Annelie

AU - O'Callaghan, Eadbhard

AU - O'Dushlaine, Colm

AU - O'Neill, F. Anthony

AU - Oh, Sang Yun

AU - Olincy, Ann

AU - Olsen, Line

AU - Van Os, Jim

AU - Pantelis, Christos

AU - Papadimitriou, George N.

AU - Papiol, Sergi

AU - Parkhomenko, Elena

AU - Pato, Michele T.

AU - Paunio, Tiina

AU - Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica

AU - Perkins, Diana O.

AU - Pietiläinen, Olli

AU - Pimm, Jonathan

AU - Pocklington, Andrew J.

AU - Powell, John

AU - Price, Alkes

AU - Pulver, Ann E.

AU - Purcell, Shaun M.

AU - Quested, Digby

AU - Rasmussen, Henrik B.

AU - Reichenberg, Abraham

AU - Reimers, Mark A.

AU - Richards, Alexander L.

AU - Roffman, Joshua L.

AU - Roussos, Panos

AU - Ruderfer, Douglas M.

AU - Salomaa, Veikko

AU - Sanders, Alan R.

AU - Schall, Ulrich

AU - Schubert, Christian R.

AU - Schulze, Thomas G.

AU - Schwab, Sibylle G.

AU - Scolnick, Edward M.

AU - Scott, Rodney J.

AU - Seidman, Larry J.

AU - Shi, Jianxin

AU - Sigurdsson, Engilbert

AU - Silagadze, Teimuraz

AU - Silverman, Jeremy M.

AU - Sim, Kang

AU - Slominsky, Petr

AU - Smoller, Jordan W.

AU - So, Hon Cheong

AU - Spencer, Chris C.A.

AU - Stahl, Eli A.

AU - Stefansson, Hreinn

AU - Steinberg, Stacy

AU - Stogmann, Elisabeth

AU - Straub, Richard E.

AU - Strengman, Eric

AU - Strohmaier, Jana

AU - Stroup, T. Scott

AU - Subramaniam, Mythily

AU - Suvisaari, Jaana

AU - Svrakic, Dragan M.

AU - Szatkiewicz, Jin P.

AU - Söderman, Erik

AU - Thirumalai, Srinivas

AU - Toncheva, Draga

AU - Tosato, Sarah

AU - Veijola, Juha

AU - Waddington, John

AU - Walsh, Dermot

AU - Wang, Dai

AU - Wang, Qiang

AU - Webb, Bradley T.

AU - Weiser, Mark

AU - Wildenauer, Dieter B.

AU - Williams, Nigel M.

AU - Williams, Stephanie

AU - Witt, Stephanie H.

AU - Wolen, Aaron

AU - Wong, Emily H.M.

AU - Wormley, Brandon K.

AU - Xi, Hualin Simon

AU - Zai, Clement C.

AU - Zheng, Xuebin

AU - Zimprich, Fritz

AU - Wray, Naomi R.

AU - Stefansson, Kari

AU - Visscher, Peter M.

AU - Adolfsson, Rolf

AU - Andreassen, Ole A.

AU - Blackwood, Douglas H.R.

AU - Bramon, Elvira

AU - Buxbaum, Joseph D.

AU - Børglum, Anders D.

AU - Cichon, Sven

AU - Darvasi, Ariel

AU - Domenici, Enrico

AU - Ehrenreich, Hannelore

AU - Esko, Tõnu

AU - Gejman, Pablo V.

AU - Gill, Michael

AU - Gurling, Hugh

AU - Hultman, Christina M.

AU - Iwata, Nakao

AU - Jablensky, Assen V.

AU - Jönsson, Erik G.

AU - Kendler, Kenneth S.

AU - Kirov, George

AU - Knight, Jo

AU - Lencz, Todd

AU - Levinson, Douglas F.

AU - Li, Qingqin S.

AU - Liu, Jianjun

AU - Malhotra, Anil K.

AU - McCarroll, Steven A.

AU - McQuillin, Andrew

AU - Moran, Jennifer L.

AU - Mortensen, Preben B.

AU - Mowry, Bryan J.

AU - Nöthen, Markus M.

AU - Ophoff, Roel A.

AU - Owen, Michael J.

AU - Palotie, Aarno

AU - Pato, Carlos N.

AU - Petryshen, Tracey L.

AU - Posthuma, Danielle

AU - Rietschel, Marcella

AU - Riley, Brien P.

AU - Rujescu, Dan

AU - Sham, Pak C.

AU - Sklar, Pamela

AU - St Clair, David

AU - Weinberger, Daniel R.

AU - Wendland, Jens R.

AU - Werge, Thomas

AU - Daly, Mark J.

AU - Sullivan, Patrick F.

AU - O'Donovan, Michael C.

PY - 2014/1/1

Y1 - 2014/1/1

N2 - Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder. Genetic risk is conferred by a large number of alleles, including common alleles of small effect that might be detected by genome-wide association studies. Here we report a multi-stage schizophrenia genome-wide association study of up to 36,989 cases and 113,075 controls. We identify 128 independent associations spanning 108 conservatively defined loci that meet genome-wide significance, 83 of which have not been previously reported. Associations were enriched among genes expressed in brain, providing biological plausibility for the findings. Many findings have the potential to provide entirely new insights into aetiology, but associations at DRD2 and several genes involved in glutamatergic neurotransmission highlight molecules of known and potential therapeutic relevance to schizophrenia, and are consistent with leading pathophysiological hypotheses. Independent of genes expressed in brain, associations were enriched among genes expressed in tissues that have important roles in immunity, providing support for the speculated link between the immune system and schizophrenia.

AB - Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder. Genetic risk is conferred by a large number of alleles, including common alleles of small effect that might be detected by genome-wide association studies. Here we report a multi-stage schizophrenia genome-wide association study of up to 36,989 cases and 113,075 controls. We identify 128 independent associations spanning 108 conservatively defined loci that meet genome-wide significance, 83 of which have not been previously reported. Associations were enriched among genes expressed in brain, providing biological plausibility for the findings. Many findings have the potential to provide entirely new insights into aetiology, but associations at DRD2 and several genes involved in glutamatergic neurotransmission highlight molecules of known and potential therapeutic relevance to schizophrenia, and are consistent with leading pathophysiological hypotheses. Independent of genes expressed in brain, associations were enriched among genes expressed in tissues that have important roles in immunity, providing support for the speculated link between the immune system and schizophrenia.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84904804929&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84904804929&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1038/nature13595

DO - 10.1038/nature13595

M3 - Article

VL - 511

SP - 421

EP - 427

JO - Nature

JF - Nature

SN - 0028-0836

IS - 7510

ER -