Blood pressure reactivity to the cold pressor test predicts hypertension among Chinese adults

The GenSalt study

Qi Zhao, Dongfeng Gu, Fanghong Lu, Jianjun Mu, Xushan Wang, Xu Ji, Dongsheng Hu, Jixiang Ma, Jianfeng Huang, Jianxin Li, Jichun Chen, Jie Cao, Chung Shiuan Chen, Jing Chen, Treva K. Rice, Jiang He

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

BACKGROUND Blood pressure (BP) hyper-reactivity to the cold pressor test (CPT) has been suggested as a predictor of hypertension. We examined whether BP reactivity to the CPT was associated with hypertension incidence among the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt Sensitivity (GenSalt) study participants from China. METHODS A total of 1,961 GenSalt study participants without any antihypertensive treatment completed the CPT at the baseline examination. Hypertension status was assessed at baseline (2003-2005) and 2 follow-up visits (2008-2009 and 2011-2012). RESULTS After adjustment for multiple covariates, both systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP reactivity to the CPT were significantly associated with hypertension incidence. For example, the multivariable adjusted odds ratios (ORs, 95% CI) of developing hypertension were 0.92 (0.66, 1.29), 1.42 (1.03, 1.97), and 1.45 (1.05, 2.00) for participants with maximum SBP responses of 6.7-12.0, 12.1-19.2, and ≥19.3mm Hg, respectively, compared to those with responses of <6.7mm Hg (P for trend = 0.006). Likewise, the multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CI) of hypertension were 1.12 (0.79, 1.57), 1.62 (1.15, 2.29), and 1.82 (1.30, 2.55) for participants with the area under the curve of SBP responses of 3.0-16.0, 16.1-29.9, and ≥ 30.0mm Hg·min, respectively, compared to those with responses of < 3.0mm Hg·min (P for trend = 0.0001). The associations between BP reactivity variables and the risk of hypertension were not different among subgroups of sex, age, and baseline BP levels. CONCLUSIONS BP hyperreactivity to the cold stimulus may predict the risk of hypertension among Chinese adults.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1347-1354
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican journal of hypertension
Volume28
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 5 2015

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Molecular Epidemiology
Salts
Blood Pressure
Hypertension
Incidence
Antihypertensive Agents
Area Under Curve
China
Odds Ratio

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Internal Medicine

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Blood pressure reactivity to the cold pressor test predicts hypertension among Chinese adults : The GenSalt study. / Zhao, Qi; Gu, Dongfeng; Lu, Fanghong; Mu, Jianjun; Wang, Xushan; Ji, Xu; Hu, Dongsheng; Ma, Jixiang; Huang, Jianfeng; Li, Jianxin; Chen, Jichun; Cao, Jie; Chen, Chung Shiuan; Chen, Jing; Rice, Treva K.; He, Jiang.

In: American journal of hypertension, Vol. 28, No. 11, 05.08.2015, p. 1347-1354.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Zhao, Q, Gu, D, Lu, F, Mu, J, Wang, X, Ji, X, Hu, D, Ma, J, Huang, J, Li, J, Chen, J, Cao, J, Chen, CS, Chen, J, Rice, TK & He, J 2015, 'Blood pressure reactivity to the cold pressor test predicts hypertension among Chinese adults: The GenSalt study', American journal of hypertension, vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 1347-1354. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpv035
Zhao, Qi ; Gu, Dongfeng ; Lu, Fanghong ; Mu, Jianjun ; Wang, Xushan ; Ji, Xu ; Hu, Dongsheng ; Ma, Jixiang ; Huang, Jianfeng ; Li, Jianxin ; Chen, Jichun ; Cao, Jie ; Chen, Chung Shiuan ; Chen, Jing ; Rice, Treva K. ; He, Jiang. / Blood pressure reactivity to the cold pressor test predicts hypertension among Chinese adults : The GenSalt study. In: American journal of hypertension. 2015 ; Vol. 28, No. 11. pp. 1347-1354.
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abstract = "BACKGROUND Blood pressure (BP) hyper-reactivity to the cold pressor test (CPT) has been suggested as a predictor of hypertension. We examined whether BP reactivity to the CPT was associated with hypertension incidence among the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt Sensitivity (GenSalt) study participants from China. METHODS A total of 1,961 GenSalt study participants without any antihypertensive treatment completed the CPT at the baseline examination. Hypertension status was assessed at baseline (2003-2005) and 2 follow-up visits (2008-2009 and 2011-2012). RESULTS After adjustment for multiple covariates, both systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP reactivity to the CPT were significantly associated with hypertension incidence. For example, the multivariable adjusted odds ratios (ORs, 95{\%} CI) of developing hypertension were 0.92 (0.66, 1.29), 1.42 (1.03, 1.97), and 1.45 (1.05, 2.00) for participants with maximum SBP responses of 6.7-12.0, 12.1-19.2, and ≥19.3mm Hg, respectively, compared to those with responses of <6.7mm Hg (P for trend = 0.006). Likewise, the multivariable-adjusted ORs (95{\%} CI) of hypertension were 1.12 (0.79, 1.57), 1.62 (1.15, 2.29), and 1.82 (1.30, 2.55) for participants with the area under the curve of SBP responses of 3.0-16.0, 16.1-29.9, and ≥ 30.0mm Hg·min, respectively, compared to those with responses of < 3.0mm Hg·min (P for trend = 0.0001). The associations between BP reactivity variables and the risk of hypertension were not different among subgroups of sex, age, and baseline BP levels. CONCLUSIONS BP hyperreactivity to the cold stimulus may predict the risk of hypertension among Chinese adults.",
author = "Qi Zhao and Dongfeng Gu and Fanghong Lu and Jianjun Mu and Xushan Wang and Xu Ji and Dongsheng Hu and Jixiang Ma and Jianfeng Huang and Jianxin Li and Jichun Chen and Jie Cao and Chen, {Chung Shiuan} and Jing Chen and Rice, {Treva K.} and Jiang He",
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T1 - Blood pressure reactivity to the cold pressor test predicts hypertension among Chinese adults

T2 - The GenSalt study

AU - Zhao, Qi

AU - Gu, Dongfeng

AU - Lu, Fanghong

AU - Mu, Jianjun

AU - Wang, Xushan

AU - Ji, Xu

AU - Hu, Dongsheng

AU - Ma, Jixiang

AU - Huang, Jianfeng

AU - Li, Jianxin

AU - Chen, Jichun

AU - Cao, Jie

AU - Chen, Chung Shiuan

AU - Chen, Jing

AU - Rice, Treva K.

AU - He, Jiang

PY - 2015/8/5

Y1 - 2015/8/5

N2 - BACKGROUND Blood pressure (BP) hyper-reactivity to the cold pressor test (CPT) has been suggested as a predictor of hypertension. We examined whether BP reactivity to the CPT was associated with hypertension incidence among the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt Sensitivity (GenSalt) study participants from China. METHODS A total of 1,961 GenSalt study participants without any antihypertensive treatment completed the CPT at the baseline examination. Hypertension status was assessed at baseline (2003-2005) and 2 follow-up visits (2008-2009 and 2011-2012). RESULTS After adjustment for multiple covariates, both systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP reactivity to the CPT were significantly associated with hypertension incidence. For example, the multivariable adjusted odds ratios (ORs, 95% CI) of developing hypertension were 0.92 (0.66, 1.29), 1.42 (1.03, 1.97), and 1.45 (1.05, 2.00) for participants with maximum SBP responses of 6.7-12.0, 12.1-19.2, and ≥19.3mm Hg, respectively, compared to those with responses of <6.7mm Hg (P for trend = 0.006). Likewise, the multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CI) of hypertension were 1.12 (0.79, 1.57), 1.62 (1.15, 2.29), and 1.82 (1.30, 2.55) for participants with the area under the curve of SBP responses of 3.0-16.0, 16.1-29.9, and ≥ 30.0mm Hg·min, respectively, compared to those with responses of < 3.0mm Hg·min (P for trend = 0.0001). The associations between BP reactivity variables and the risk of hypertension were not different among subgroups of sex, age, and baseline BP levels. CONCLUSIONS BP hyperreactivity to the cold stimulus may predict the risk of hypertension among Chinese adults.

AB - BACKGROUND Blood pressure (BP) hyper-reactivity to the cold pressor test (CPT) has been suggested as a predictor of hypertension. We examined whether BP reactivity to the CPT was associated with hypertension incidence among the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt Sensitivity (GenSalt) study participants from China. METHODS A total of 1,961 GenSalt study participants without any antihypertensive treatment completed the CPT at the baseline examination. Hypertension status was assessed at baseline (2003-2005) and 2 follow-up visits (2008-2009 and 2011-2012). RESULTS After adjustment for multiple covariates, both systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP reactivity to the CPT were significantly associated with hypertension incidence. For example, the multivariable adjusted odds ratios (ORs, 95% CI) of developing hypertension were 0.92 (0.66, 1.29), 1.42 (1.03, 1.97), and 1.45 (1.05, 2.00) for participants with maximum SBP responses of 6.7-12.0, 12.1-19.2, and ≥19.3mm Hg, respectively, compared to those with responses of <6.7mm Hg (P for trend = 0.006). Likewise, the multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CI) of hypertension were 1.12 (0.79, 1.57), 1.62 (1.15, 2.29), and 1.82 (1.30, 2.55) for participants with the area under the curve of SBP responses of 3.0-16.0, 16.1-29.9, and ≥ 30.0mm Hg·min, respectively, compared to those with responses of < 3.0mm Hg·min (P for trend = 0.0001). The associations between BP reactivity variables and the risk of hypertension were not different among subgroups of sex, age, and baseline BP levels. CONCLUSIONS BP hyperreactivity to the cold stimulus may predict the risk of hypertension among Chinese adults.

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U2 - 10.1093/ajh/hpv035

DO - 10.1093/ajh/hpv035

M3 - Article

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