Brainstem motoneuron pools that are selectively resistant in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are preferentially enriched in parvalbumin

Evidence from monkey brainstem for a calcium-mediated mechanism in sporadic ALS

Anton Reiner, Loreta Medina, Griselle Figueredo-Cardenas, Scott Anfinson

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92 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Some brainstem motoneuron groups appear more resistant to the process of neurodegeneration in ALS (for example, oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nuclei) than others (for example, trigeminal, facial, ambiguus, and hypoglossal nuclei). The possibility that the differential presence of the calcium-chelating protein parvalbumin might underlie this difference in vulnerability was examined immunohistochemically as a way to determine whether a calcium-mediated mechanism might be involved in ALS. In normal monkey brainstem, we found that the abundance of parvalbumin-containing neurons in the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nuclei was approximately 90% of the abudance of choline acetyltransferase (CHAT)-containing motoneurons. In contrast, the abundance of parvalbumin-containing neurons in the other brainstem motor nuclei innervating skeletal muscle (trigeminal, facial, ambiguus, and hypoglossal) was only about 30-60% of the abundance of CHAT-containing motoneurons. Since some of these motoneuron pools contain nonmotoneuron internuclear neurons that might be parvalbumin-containing, we also carried out double-label studies to specifically determine the percentage of cholinergic motoneurons that contained paravalbumin in each of these motoneuron pools. We found that 85-100% of the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens motoneurons were parvalbumin-containing. In contrast, only 20-30% of the trigeminal, facial, ambiguus, and hypoglossal motoneurons were parvalbumin-containing. These results raise the possibility that motoneuron death in sporadic ALS is related to some defect that promotes cytosolic calcium accumulation in motoneurons. This excess calcium entry may promote cell death via an excitotoxic pathway. Motoneurons rich in parvalbumin may resist the deleterious effects of this putative calcium gating defect because they are better able to sequester the excess calcium.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)239-250
Number of pages12
JournalExperimental Neurology
Volume131
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1995

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Parvalbumins
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Motor Neurons
Brain Stem
Haplorhini
Calcium
Tegmentum Mesencephali
Choline O-Acetyltransferase
Neurons
Medulla Oblongata
Cholinergic Agents
Skeletal Muscle
Cell Death

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Neurology
  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

@article{2d4fb2376d444e76a1a79505d4a7ad6f,
title = "Brainstem motoneuron pools that are selectively resistant in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are preferentially enriched in parvalbumin: Evidence from monkey brainstem for a calcium-mediated mechanism in sporadic ALS",
abstract = "Some brainstem motoneuron groups appear more resistant to the process of neurodegeneration in ALS (for example, oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nuclei) than others (for example, trigeminal, facial, ambiguus, and hypoglossal nuclei). The possibility that the differential presence of the calcium-chelating protein parvalbumin might underlie this difference in vulnerability was examined immunohistochemically as a way to determine whether a calcium-mediated mechanism might be involved in ALS. In normal monkey brainstem, we found that the abundance of parvalbumin-containing neurons in the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nuclei was approximately 90{\%} of the abudance of choline acetyltransferase (CHAT)-containing motoneurons. In contrast, the abundance of parvalbumin-containing neurons in the other brainstem motor nuclei innervating skeletal muscle (trigeminal, facial, ambiguus, and hypoglossal) was only about 30-60{\%} of the abundance of CHAT-containing motoneurons. Since some of these motoneuron pools contain nonmotoneuron internuclear neurons that might be parvalbumin-containing, we also carried out double-label studies to specifically determine the percentage of cholinergic motoneurons that contained paravalbumin in each of these motoneuron pools. We found that 85-100{\%} of the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens motoneurons were parvalbumin-containing. In contrast, only 20-30{\%} of the trigeminal, facial, ambiguus, and hypoglossal motoneurons were parvalbumin-containing. These results raise the possibility that motoneuron death in sporadic ALS is related to some defect that promotes cytosolic calcium accumulation in motoneurons. This excess calcium entry may promote cell death via an excitotoxic pathway. Motoneurons rich in parvalbumin may resist the deleterious effects of this putative calcium gating defect because they are better able to sequester the excess calcium.",
author = "Anton Reiner and Loreta Medina and Griselle Figueredo-Cardenas and Scott Anfinson",
year = "1995",
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T1 - Brainstem motoneuron pools that are selectively resistant in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are preferentially enriched in parvalbumin

T2 - Evidence from monkey brainstem for a calcium-mediated mechanism in sporadic ALS

AU - Reiner, Anton

AU - Medina, Loreta

AU - Figueredo-Cardenas, Griselle

AU - Anfinson, Scott

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N2 - Some brainstem motoneuron groups appear more resistant to the process of neurodegeneration in ALS (for example, oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nuclei) than others (for example, trigeminal, facial, ambiguus, and hypoglossal nuclei). The possibility that the differential presence of the calcium-chelating protein parvalbumin might underlie this difference in vulnerability was examined immunohistochemically as a way to determine whether a calcium-mediated mechanism might be involved in ALS. In normal monkey brainstem, we found that the abundance of parvalbumin-containing neurons in the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nuclei was approximately 90% of the abudance of choline acetyltransferase (CHAT)-containing motoneurons. In contrast, the abundance of parvalbumin-containing neurons in the other brainstem motor nuclei innervating skeletal muscle (trigeminal, facial, ambiguus, and hypoglossal) was only about 30-60% of the abundance of CHAT-containing motoneurons. Since some of these motoneuron pools contain nonmotoneuron internuclear neurons that might be parvalbumin-containing, we also carried out double-label studies to specifically determine the percentage of cholinergic motoneurons that contained paravalbumin in each of these motoneuron pools. We found that 85-100% of the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens motoneurons were parvalbumin-containing. In contrast, only 20-30% of the trigeminal, facial, ambiguus, and hypoglossal motoneurons were parvalbumin-containing. These results raise the possibility that motoneuron death in sporadic ALS is related to some defect that promotes cytosolic calcium accumulation in motoneurons. This excess calcium entry may promote cell death via an excitotoxic pathway. Motoneurons rich in parvalbumin may resist the deleterious effects of this putative calcium gating defect because they are better able to sequester the excess calcium.

AB - Some brainstem motoneuron groups appear more resistant to the process of neurodegeneration in ALS (for example, oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nuclei) than others (for example, trigeminal, facial, ambiguus, and hypoglossal nuclei). The possibility that the differential presence of the calcium-chelating protein parvalbumin might underlie this difference in vulnerability was examined immunohistochemically as a way to determine whether a calcium-mediated mechanism might be involved in ALS. In normal monkey brainstem, we found that the abundance of parvalbumin-containing neurons in the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nuclei was approximately 90% of the abudance of choline acetyltransferase (CHAT)-containing motoneurons. In contrast, the abundance of parvalbumin-containing neurons in the other brainstem motor nuclei innervating skeletal muscle (trigeminal, facial, ambiguus, and hypoglossal) was only about 30-60% of the abundance of CHAT-containing motoneurons. Since some of these motoneuron pools contain nonmotoneuron internuclear neurons that might be parvalbumin-containing, we also carried out double-label studies to specifically determine the percentage of cholinergic motoneurons that contained paravalbumin in each of these motoneuron pools. We found that 85-100% of the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens motoneurons were parvalbumin-containing. In contrast, only 20-30% of the trigeminal, facial, ambiguus, and hypoglossal motoneurons were parvalbumin-containing. These results raise the possibility that motoneuron death in sporadic ALS is related to some defect that promotes cytosolic calcium accumulation in motoneurons. This excess calcium entry may promote cell death via an excitotoxic pathway. Motoneurons rich in parvalbumin may resist the deleterious effects of this putative calcium gating defect because they are better able to sequester the excess calcium.

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