Carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide

Gaseous messengers in cerebrovascular circulation

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

144 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This review focuses on two gaseous cellular messenger molecules, CO and H2S, that are involved in cerebrovascular flow regulation. CO is a dilatory mediator in active hyperemia, autoregulation, hypoxic dilation, and counteracting vasoconstriction. It is produced from heme by a constitutively expressed enzyme [heme oxygenase (HO)-2] expressed highly in the brain and by an inducible enzyme (HO-1). CO production is regulated by controlling substrate availability, HO-2 catalytic activity, and HO-1 expression. CO dilates arterioles by binding to heme that is bound to large-conductance Ca2+-activated K/+ channels. This binding elevates channel Ca2+ sensitivity, that increases coupling of Ca2+ sparks to large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel openings and, thereby, hyperpolarizes the vascular smooth muscle. In addition to dilating blood vessels, CO can either inhibit or accentuate vascular cell proliferation and apoptosis, depending on conditions. H2S may also function as a cerebrovascular dilator. It is produced in vascular smooth muscle cells by hydrolysis of L-cysteine catalyzed by cystathione γ-lyase (CSE). H2S dilates arterioles at physiologically relevant concentrations via activation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels. In addition to dilating blood vessels, H2S promotes apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells and inhibits proliferation-associated vascular remodeling. Thus both CO and H2S modulate the function and the structure of circulatory system. Both the HO-CO and CSE-H2S systems have potential to interact with NO and prostanoids in the cerebral circulation. Much of the physiology and biochemistry of HO-CO and CSE-H2S in the cerebral circulation remains open for exploration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1065-1076
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of applied physiology
Volume100
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2006

Fingerprint

Cerebrovascular Circulation
Hydrogen Sulfide
Carbon Monoxide
Lyases
Vascular Smooth Muscle
Blood Vessels
Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels
Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)
Heme Oxygenase-1
Arterioles
Smooth Muscle Myocytes
Gasotransmitters
Cell Proliferation
Apoptosis
carbon sulfide
Hyperemia
Enzymes
Cardiovascular System
Vasoconstriction
Heme

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

Carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide : Gaseous messengers in cerebrovascular circulation. / Leffler, Charles; Parfenova, Elena; Jaggar, Jonathan; Wang, Rui.

In: Journal of applied physiology, Vol. 100, No. 3, 01.03.2006, p. 1065-1076.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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