Cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline in postmenopausal women

results from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study

Bernhard Haring, Xiaoyan Leng, Jennifer Robinson, Karen Johnson, Rebecca D. Jackson, Rebecca Beyth, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Moritz W.yler von Ballmoos, Joseph S. Goveas, Lewis H. Kuller, Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

47 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Data on cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cognitive decline are conflicting. Our objective was to investigate if CVD is associated with an increased risk for cognitive decline and to examine whether hypertension, diabetes, or adiposity modify the effect of CVD on cognitive functioning.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Prospective follow-up of 6455 cognitively intact, postmenopausal women aged 65 to 79 years old enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS). CVD was determined by self-report. For cognitive decline, we assessed the incidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or probable dementia (PD) via modified mini-mental state examination (3 MS) score, neurocognitive, and neuropsychiatric examinations. The median follow-up was 8.4 years. Women with CVD tended to be at increased risk for cognitive decline compared with those free of CVD (hazard ratio [HR], 1.29; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.67). Women with myocardial infarction or other vascular disease were at highest risk (HR, 2.10; 95% CI: 1.40, 3.15 or HR, 1.97; 95% CI: 1.34, 2.87). Angina pectoris was moderately associated with cognitive decline (HR 1.45; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.01) whereas no significant relationships were found for atrial fibrillation or heart failure. Hypertension and diabetes increased the risk for cognitive decline in women without CVD. Diabetes tended to elevate the risk for MCI/PD in women with CVD. No significant trend was seen for adiposity.

CONCLUSIONS: CVD is associated with cognitive decline in elderly postmenopausal women. Hypertension and diabetes, but not adiposity, are associated with a higher risk for cognitive decline. More research is warranted on the potential of CVD prevention for preserving cognitive functioning.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e000369
JournalJournal of the American Heart Association
Volume2
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2013

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Women's Health
Cardiovascular Diseases
Adiposity
Hypertension
Dementia
Cognitive Dysfunction
Angina Pectoris
Vascular Diseases
Atrial Fibrillation
Self Report
Heart Failure
Odds Ratio
Myocardial Infarction
Incidence

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline in postmenopausal women : results from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. / Haring, Bernhard; Leng, Xiaoyan; Robinson, Jennifer; Johnson, Karen; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Beyth, Rebecca; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; von Ballmoos, Moritz W.yler; Goveas, Joseph S.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia.

In: Journal of the American Heart Association, Vol. 2, No. 6, 01.12.2013, p. e000369.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Haring, B, Leng, X, Robinson, J, Johnson, K, Jackson, RD, Beyth, R, Wactawski-Wende, J, von Ballmoos, MWY, Goveas, JS, Kuller, LH & Wassertheil-Smoller, S 2013, 'Cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline in postmenopausal women: results from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study', Journal of the American Heart Association, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. e000369. https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.113.000369
Haring, Bernhard ; Leng, Xiaoyan ; Robinson, Jennifer ; Johnson, Karen ; Jackson, Rebecca D. ; Beyth, Rebecca ; Wactawski-Wende, Jean ; von Ballmoos, Moritz W.yler ; Goveas, Joseph S. ; Kuller, Lewis H. ; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia. / Cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline in postmenopausal women : results from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. In: Journal of the American Heart Association. 2013 ; Vol. 2, No. 6. pp. e000369.
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abstract = "BACKGROUND: Data on cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cognitive decline are conflicting. Our objective was to investigate if CVD is associated with an increased risk for cognitive decline and to examine whether hypertension, diabetes, or adiposity modify the effect of CVD on cognitive functioning.METHODS AND RESULTS: Prospective follow-up of 6455 cognitively intact, postmenopausal women aged 65 to 79 years old enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS). CVD was determined by self-report. For cognitive decline, we assessed the incidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or probable dementia (PD) via modified mini-mental state examination (3 MS) score, neurocognitive, and neuropsychiatric examinations. The median follow-up was 8.4 years. Women with CVD tended to be at increased risk for cognitive decline compared with those free of CVD (hazard ratio [HR], 1.29; 95{\%} CI: 1.00, 1.67). Women with myocardial infarction or other vascular disease were at highest risk (HR, 2.10; 95{\%} CI: 1.40, 3.15 or HR, 1.97; 95{\%} CI: 1.34, 2.87). Angina pectoris was moderately associated with cognitive decline (HR 1.45; 95{\%} CI: 1.05, 2.01) whereas no significant relationships were found for atrial fibrillation or heart failure. Hypertension and diabetes increased the risk for cognitive decline in women without CVD. Diabetes tended to elevate the risk for MCI/PD in women with CVD. No significant trend was seen for adiposity.CONCLUSIONS: CVD is associated with cognitive decline in elderly postmenopausal women. Hypertension and diabetes, but not adiposity, are associated with a higher risk for cognitive decline. More research is warranted on the potential of CVD prevention for preserving cognitive functioning.",
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AU - Jackson, Rebecca D.

AU - Beyth, Rebecca

AU - Wactawski-Wende, Jean

AU - von Ballmoos, Moritz W.yler

AU - Goveas, Joseph S.

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AU - Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia

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N2 - BACKGROUND: Data on cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cognitive decline are conflicting. Our objective was to investigate if CVD is associated with an increased risk for cognitive decline and to examine whether hypertension, diabetes, or adiposity modify the effect of CVD on cognitive functioning.METHODS AND RESULTS: Prospective follow-up of 6455 cognitively intact, postmenopausal women aged 65 to 79 years old enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS). CVD was determined by self-report. For cognitive decline, we assessed the incidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or probable dementia (PD) via modified mini-mental state examination (3 MS) score, neurocognitive, and neuropsychiatric examinations. The median follow-up was 8.4 years. Women with CVD tended to be at increased risk for cognitive decline compared with those free of CVD (hazard ratio [HR], 1.29; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.67). Women with myocardial infarction or other vascular disease were at highest risk (HR, 2.10; 95% CI: 1.40, 3.15 or HR, 1.97; 95% CI: 1.34, 2.87). Angina pectoris was moderately associated with cognitive decline (HR 1.45; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.01) whereas no significant relationships were found for atrial fibrillation or heart failure. Hypertension and diabetes increased the risk for cognitive decline in women without CVD. Diabetes tended to elevate the risk for MCI/PD in women with CVD. No significant trend was seen for adiposity.CONCLUSIONS: CVD is associated with cognitive decline in elderly postmenopausal women. Hypertension and diabetes, but not adiposity, are associated with a higher risk for cognitive decline. More research is warranted on the potential of CVD prevention for preserving cognitive functioning.

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