Cardiovascular Disease, its Risk Factors and Treatment, and Age-related Macular Degeneration

Women's Health Initiative Sight Exam Ancillary Study

Ronald Klein, Yingzi Deng, Barbara E.K. Klein, Leslie Hyman, Johanna Seddon, Robert N. Frank, Robert B. Wallace, Susan L. Hendrix, Baruch D. Kuppermann, Robert D. Langer, Lewis Kuller, Robert Brunner, Karen Johnson, Asha M. Thomas, Mary Haan

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Abstract

Purpose: To examine the association of cardiovascular disease (CVD), CVD risk factors, and CVD treatment with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design: Observational analysis of a randomized clinical trial. Methods: settings: The Women's Health Initiative Sight Examination (WHISE), an ancillary study to the Women's Health Initiative's clinical trial of hormone replacement therapy. study population: A total of 4,288 women age 63 years and older. observation procedures: Information on CVD and its risk factors were obtained from a standardized questionnaire and examination. main outcome measure: AMD as determined by standardized grading of fundus photographs. Results: Prevalence of any AMD was 21.4% (n = 919). Of those with AMD, 5.8% (n = 53) had signs of exudative AMD (n = 39) or pure geographic atrophy (n = 14), limiting the power to examine associations. Significant associations between late AMD and CVD risk factors were (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI]) older age (1.19, 1.13 to 1.27, P < .0001), more pack years smoked (1.02 per pack-year smoked, 1.003 to 1.03, P = .01), systolic blood pressure (0.84 per 10 mm Hg, 0.71 to 0.995, P = .04), report of taking calcium channel blockers (2.49, 1.21 to 5.12, P = .04), self-reported history of diabetes (2.00, 1.01 to 3.96, P = .05), and greater body mass index (1.05 per 1 kg/m2, 1.001 to 1.10, P = .05). History of myocardial infarction, stroke, use of statins, or white blood cell count was not associated with AMD. Conclusions: Results suggest that smoking, use of calcium channel blockers, diabetes, and obesity are risk factors for late AMD in women. However, the association of late AMD with systolic blood pressure and the effects of other CVD risk factors on early AMD need to be further explored.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican Journal of Ophthalmology
Volume143
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2007

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Macular Degeneration
Women's Health
Cardiovascular Diseases
Blood Pressure
Therapeutics
Calcium Channel Blockers
Geographic Atrophy
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors
Hormone Replacement Therapy
Leukocyte Count
Body Mass Index
Randomized Controlled Trials
Obesity
Smoking
Stroke
Odds Ratio
Myocardial Infarction
Observation
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Clinical Trials

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ophthalmology

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Cardiovascular Disease, its Risk Factors and Treatment, and Age-related Macular Degeneration : Women's Health Initiative Sight Exam Ancillary Study. / Klein, Ronald; Deng, Yingzi; Klein, Barbara E.K.; Hyman, Leslie; Seddon, Johanna; Frank, Robert N.; Wallace, Robert B.; Hendrix, Susan L.; Kuppermann, Baruch D.; Langer, Robert D.; Kuller, Lewis; Brunner, Robert; Johnson, Karen; Thomas, Asha M.; Haan, Mary.

In: American Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 143, No. 3, 01.01.2007.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Klein, R, Deng, Y, Klein, BEK, Hyman, L, Seddon, J, Frank, RN, Wallace, RB, Hendrix, SL, Kuppermann, BD, Langer, RD, Kuller, L, Brunner, R, Johnson, K, Thomas, AM & Haan, M 2007, 'Cardiovascular Disease, its Risk Factors and Treatment, and Age-related Macular Degeneration: Women's Health Initiative Sight Exam Ancillary Study', American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 143, no. 3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2006.11.058
Klein, Ronald ; Deng, Yingzi ; Klein, Barbara E.K. ; Hyman, Leslie ; Seddon, Johanna ; Frank, Robert N. ; Wallace, Robert B. ; Hendrix, Susan L. ; Kuppermann, Baruch D. ; Langer, Robert D. ; Kuller, Lewis ; Brunner, Robert ; Johnson, Karen ; Thomas, Asha M. ; Haan, Mary. / Cardiovascular Disease, its Risk Factors and Treatment, and Age-related Macular Degeneration : Women's Health Initiative Sight Exam Ancillary Study. In: American Journal of Ophthalmology. 2007 ; Vol. 143, No. 3.
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abstract = "Purpose: To examine the association of cardiovascular disease (CVD), CVD risk factors, and CVD treatment with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design: Observational analysis of a randomized clinical trial. Methods: settings: The Women's Health Initiative Sight Examination (WHISE), an ancillary study to the Women's Health Initiative's clinical trial of hormone replacement therapy. study population: A total of 4,288 women age 63 years and older. observation procedures: Information on CVD and its risk factors were obtained from a standardized questionnaire and examination. main outcome measure: AMD as determined by standardized grading of fundus photographs. Results: Prevalence of any AMD was 21.4{\%} (n = 919). Of those with AMD, 5.8{\%} (n = 53) had signs of exudative AMD (n = 39) or pure geographic atrophy (n = 14), limiting the power to examine associations. Significant associations between late AMD and CVD risk factors were (odds ratio [OR], 95{\%} confidence interval [CI]) older age (1.19, 1.13 to 1.27, P < .0001), more pack years smoked (1.02 per pack-year smoked, 1.003 to 1.03, P = .01), systolic blood pressure (0.84 per 10 mm Hg, 0.71 to 0.995, P = .04), report of taking calcium channel blockers (2.49, 1.21 to 5.12, P = .04), self-reported history of diabetes (2.00, 1.01 to 3.96, P = .05), and greater body mass index (1.05 per 1 kg/m2, 1.001 to 1.10, P = .05). History of myocardial infarction, stroke, use of statins, or white blood cell count was not associated with AMD. Conclusions: Results suggest that smoking, use of calcium channel blockers, diabetes, and obesity are risk factors for late AMD in women. However, the association of late AMD with systolic blood pressure and the effects of other CVD risk factors on early AMD need to be further explored.",
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AU - Hyman, Leslie

AU - Seddon, Johanna

AU - Frank, Robert N.

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AU - Langer, Robert D.

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