Changes in skeletal muscle and organ size after a weight-loss intervention in overweight and obese type 2 diabetic patients

Dympna Gallagher, David E. Kelley, John Thornton, Lawrence Boxt, Xavier Pi-Sunyer, Edward Lipkin, Ebenezer Nyenwe, Isaiah Janumala, Stanley Heshka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background: The effect of a weight-loss intervention on the masses of lean tissues and organs in humans is not well known. Objective: We studied the effects of a diet and exercise weight-loss intervention on skeletal muscle (SM) mass and selected organs over 2 y using MRI in overweight adults with type 2 diabetes. Design: Participants were 53 women and 39 men [mean 6 SD: age 58 ± 7 y; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) 32 6 3] enrolled in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial and randomly assigned to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) or diabetes support and education (DSE) on whom 2 y of data were collected. MRI-derived measurements of SM, heart, liver, kidney, spleen, and pancreas were acquired. Results: Adjusted for baseline weight, height, age, sex, and ethnicity, the ILI group weighed (mean ± SE) 6.6 ± 0.7 kg less after 1 y and 5.2 ± 0.7 kg less after 2 y, whereas the DSE group did not change significantly (20.4 ± 0.6 and 21.0 ± 0.7 kg after 1 and 2 y, respectively; P-interaction < 0.001). Total SM decreased in both groups during year 1 (21.4 ± 0.2 kg; P < 0.001) with appendicular SM regained during year 2. Liver and spleen masses decreased in the ILI group (20.12 ± 0.02 and 20.006 ± 0.003 kg, respectively) but were unchanged in the DSE group (0.00 ± 0.02 and 0.004 ± 0.003 kg, respectively). Kidney mass decreased by 0.013 ± 0.003 kg (P < 0.001) over 2 y in both groups. Conclusions: Decreases in liver (in Caucasians but not African Americans) and spleen were detected after a 6.2-kg weight reduction compared with a control group. SM and kidney mass decreased in both groups. Appendicular SM was regained during the second year whereas trunk SM was not. No evidence of a disproportionate loss of high-metabolic rate organs (heart, liver, kidney, spleen) compared with SM was found.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)78-84
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume105
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017

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Organ Size
Weight Loss
Skeletal Muscle
Spleen
Kidney
Life Style
Liver
Education
Reducing Diet
African Americans
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Pancreas
Body Mass Index
Heart Rate
Exercise
Weights and Measures
Control Groups
Health

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Changes in skeletal muscle and organ size after a weight-loss intervention in overweight and obese type 2 diabetic patients. / Gallagher, Dympna; Kelley, David E.; Thornton, John; Boxt, Lawrence; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Lipkin, Edward; Nyenwe, Ebenezer; Janumala, Isaiah; Heshka, Stanley.

In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 105, No. 1, 01.01.2017, p. 78-84.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gallagher, Dympna ; Kelley, David E. ; Thornton, John ; Boxt, Lawrence ; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier ; Lipkin, Edward ; Nyenwe, Ebenezer ; Janumala, Isaiah ; Heshka, Stanley. / Changes in skeletal muscle and organ size after a weight-loss intervention in overweight and obese type 2 diabetic patients. In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2017 ; Vol. 105, No. 1. pp. 78-84.
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AU - Kelley, David E.

AU - Thornton, John

AU - Boxt, Lawrence

AU - Pi-Sunyer, Xavier

AU - Lipkin, Edward

AU - Nyenwe, Ebenezer

AU - Janumala, Isaiah

AU - Heshka, Stanley

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N2 - Background: The effect of a weight-loss intervention on the masses of lean tissues and organs in humans is not well known. Objective: We studied the effects of a diet and exercise weight-loss intervention on skeletal muscle (SM) mass and selected organs over 2 y using MRI in overweight adults with type 2 diabetes. Design: Participants were 53 women and 39 men [mean 6 SD: age 58 ± 7 y; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) 32 6 3] enrolled in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial and randomly assigned to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) or diabetes support and education (DSE) on whom 2 y of data were collected. MRI-derived measurements of SM, heart, liver, kidney, spleen, and pancreas were acquired. Results: Adjusted for baseline weight, height, age, sex, and ethnicity, the ILI group weighed (mean ± SE) 6.6 ± 0.7 kg less after 1 y and 5.2 ± 0.7 kg less after 2 y, whereas the DSE group did not change significantly (20.4 ± 0.6 and 21.0 ± 0.7 kg after 1 and 2 y, respectively; P-interaction < 0.001). Total SM decreased in both groups during year 1 (21.4 ± 0.2 kg; P < 0.001) with appendicular SM regained during year 2. Liver and spleen masses decreased in the ILI group (20.12 ± 0.02 and 20.006 ± 0.003 kg, respectively) but were unchanged in the DSE group (0.00 ± 0.02 and 0.004 ± 0.003 kg, respectively). Kidney mass decreased by 0.013 ± 0.003 kg (P < 0.001) over 2 y in both groups. Conclusions: Decreases in liver (in Caucasians but not African Americans) and spleen were detected after a 6.2-kg weight reduction compared with a control group. SM and kidney mass decreased in both groups. Appendicular SM was regained during the second year whereas trunk SM was not. No evidence of a disproportionate loss of high-metabolic rate organs (heart, liver, kidney, spleen) compared with SM was found.

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