Chitosan coatings deliver antimicrobials from titanium implants

A preliminary study

Peter A. Norowski, Harry Courtney, Jegdish Babu, Warren O. Haggard, Joel D. Bumgardner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

34 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Chitosan was investigated as a coating for local delivery of antimicrobials for prevention of acute implant infection. The objectives of this study were to (1) measure the release of 2 antimicrobials from chitosan coatings, (2) determine efficacy of eluted antimicrobials against bacteria, in vitro, and (3) evaluate toxicity of eluted drugs to host cells/tissues. METHODS: Chitosan coatings (80.7% deacetylated, 108 kDa) containing 20% tetracycline or 0.02% chlorhexidine digluconate were bonded to titanium via silane reactions. After elution in culture medium for 7 days, eluates were tested against model pathogens Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Staphylococcus epidermidis in turbidity tests and in 24-hour cytotoxicity tests using human osteoblasts and fibroblasts. Finally, antibiotic-loaded chitosan-coated titanium pins were implanted for 7 days in muscle of Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate the initial tissue response. RESULTS: Coatings released 89% of tetracycline in 7 days and 100% chlorhexidine in 2 days. Released tetracycline inhibited growth (95%-99.9%) of pathogens for up to 7 days with no cytotoxicity to human cells. Released chlorhexidine was active against pathogens for 1 to 2 days (56%-99.5% inhibition) but was toxic to cells on the first day of elution. Typical acute inflammatory response was observed to antimicrobial-loaded chitosan coatings similar to unloaded coatings. CONCLUSION: These preliminary data support the hypothesis that chitosan coatings have the potential to locally deliver antimicrobials to inhibit bacteria without being toxic to host cells/tissues and warrant additional studies to evaluate the ability of the coatings to prevent/resist infection and promote osseointegration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)56-67
Number of pages12
JournalImplant Dentistry
Volume20
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2011

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Chitosan
Titanium
Tetracycline
Chlorhexidine
Poisons
Bacteria
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans
Silanes
Osseointegration
Staphylococcus epidermidis
Infection
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
Osteoblasts
Sprague Dawley Rats
Culture Media
Fibroblasts
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Muscles
Growth

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oral Surgery

Cite this

Chitosan coatings deliver antimicrobials from titanium implants : A preliminary study. / Norowski, Peter A.; Courtney, Harry; Babu, Jegdish; Haggard, Warren O.; Bumgardner, Joel D.

In: Implant Dentistry, Vol. 20, No. 1, 01.02.2011, p. 56-67.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Norowski, Peter A. ; Courtney, Harry ; Babu, Jegdish ; Haggard, Warren O. ; Bumgardner, Joel D. / Chitosan coatings deliver antimicrobials from titanium implants : A preliminary study. In: Implant Dentistry. 2011 ; Vol. 20, No. 1. pp. 56-67.
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