Cholinergic reticular mechanisms influence state-dependent ventilatory response to hypercapnia

Ralph Lydic, Helen Baghdoyan, R. Wertz, D. P. White

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24 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Breathing is impaired by the loss of wakefulness that accompanies sleep, certain comatose states, and anesthesia. Although state-dependent decrements in breathing and the ability to respond to hypercapnic stimuli are characteristic of most mammals, the neural mechanisms that cause state-dependent changes in respiratory control remain poorly understood. The present study examined the hypothesis that cholinergic mechanisms in the medial pontine reticular formation (mPRF) can cause state-dependent changes in breathing and in the hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR). Six cats were anesthetized with halothane and chronically instrumented for subsequent studies of breathing during wakefulness, non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, and during the REM sleep-like state caused by mPRF microinjections of carbachol or bethanechol. Minute ventilation was significantly decreased during the carbachol-induced REM sleep-like state (DCarb) compared with wakefulness. The HCVR in NREM, REM, DCarb, and after bethanechol was less than the waking HCVR. These results show for the first time that cholinoceptive regions in the mPRF can cause state-dependent reductions in normocapnic minute ventilation and in the ventilatory response to hypercapnia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Volume261
Issue number3 30-3
StatePublished - Jan 1 1991
Externally publishedYes

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Hypercapnia
Cholinergic Agents
REM Sleep
Sleep
Wakefulness
Respiration
Bethanechol
Carbachol
Eye Movements
Ventilation
Aptitude
Microinjections
Halothane
Coma
Mammals
Cats
Anesthesia
Pontine Tegmentum

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

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abstract = "Breathing is impaired by the loss of wakefulness that accompanies sleep, certain comatose states, and anesthesia. Although state-dependent decrements in breathing and the ability to respond to hypercapnic stimuli are characteristic of most mammals, the neural mechanisms that cause state-dependent changes in respiratory control remain poorly understood. The present study examined the hypothesis that cholinergic mechanisms in the medial pontine reticular formation (mPRF) can cause state-dependent changes in breathing and in the hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR). Six cats were anesthetized with halothane and chronically instrumented for subsequent studies of breathing during wakefulness, non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, and during the REM sleep-like state caused by mPRF microinjections of carbachol or bethanechol. Minute ventilation was significantly decreased during the carbachol-induced REM sleep-like state (DCarb) compared with wakefulness. The HCVR in NREM, REM, DCarb, and after bethanechol was less than the waking HCVR. These results show for the first time that cholinoceptive regions in the mPRF can cause state-dependent reductions in normocapnic minute ventilation and in the ventilatory response to hypercapnia.",
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AB - Breathing is impaired by the loss of wakefulness that accompanies sleep, certain comatose states, and anesthesia. Although state-dependent decrements in breathing and the ability to respond to hypercapnic stimuli are characteristic of most mammals, the neural mechanisms that cause state-dependent changes in respiratory control remain poorly understood. The present study examined the hypothesis that cholinergic mechanisms in the medial pontine reticular formation (mPRF) can cause state-dependent changes in breathing and in the hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR). Six cats were anesthetized with halothane and chronically instrumented for subsequent studies of breathing during wakefulness, non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, and during the REM sleep-like state caused by mPRF microinjections of carbachol or bethanechol. Minute ventilation was significantly decreased during the carbachol-induced REM sleep-like state (DCarb) compared with wakefulness. The HCVR in NREM, REM, DCarb, and after bethanechol was less than the waking HCVR. These results show for the first time that cholinoceptive regions in the mPRF can cause state-dependent reductions in normocapnic minute ventilation and in the ventilatory response to hypercapnia.

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