Chronic Effects of Ethanol and/or Darunavir/Ritonavir on U937 Monocytic Cells

Regulation of Cytochrome P450 and Antioxidant Enzymes, Oxidative Stress, and Cytotoxicity

P. S.S. Rao, Santosh Kumar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Our recent study has shown that acute treatment with ethanol (EtOH) increases oxidative stress and cytotoxicity through cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1)-mediated pathway in U937 monocytic cells. U937 cells are derived from blood monocytes and are considered as the model system for HIV-related study. Since the prevalence of alcohol use in HIV-infected population is high, and HIV+ patients are on antiretroviral therapy (ART) soon after they are diagnosed, it is important to study the interactions between EtOH and ART in monocytes. Methods: This study examined the chronic effects of EtOH and ART (darunavir/ritonavir), alone and in combination, on expression/levels of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs), antioxidant enzymes (AOEs), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cytotoxicity in U937 cells. The mRNA and protein levels were measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, respectively. ROS and cytotoxicity were measured using flow cytometry and cell viability assay, respectively. Results: While chronic ART treatment increased CYP2E1 protein expression by 2-fold, EtOH and EtOH+ART increased CYP2E1 by ~5-fold. In contrast, ART and EtOH treatments decreased CYP3A4 protein expression by 38 ± 17% and 74 ± 15%, respectively, and the combination additively decreased CYP3A4 level by 90 ± 8%. Expressions of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and peroxiredoxin (PRDX6) were decreased by both EtOH and ART, however, the expressions of SOD2 and catalase were unaltered. These results suggested increased EtOH metabolism, increased ART accumulation, and decreased defense against ROS. Therefore, we determined the effects of EtOH and ART on ROS and cytotoxicity. While ART showed a slight increase, EtOH and EtOH+ART displayed significant increase in ROS and cytotoxicity. Moreover, the combination showed additive effects on ROS and cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results suggest that chronic EtOH, in the absence and presence of ART, increases ROS and cytotoxicity in monocytes, perhaps via CYP- and AOE-mediated pathways. This study has clinical implications in HIV+ alcohol users who are on ART.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)73-82
Number of pages10
JournalAlcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research
Volume40
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016

Fingerprint

Ritonavir
U937 Cells
Oxidative stress
Cytotoxicity
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
Reactive Oxygen Species
Oxidative Stress
Ethanol
Antioxidants
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1
Enzymes
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A
Therapeutics
Alcohols
Peroxiredoxins
HIV
Proteins
Flow cytometry
Polymerase chain reaction
Monocytes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Toxicology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

@article{12ca5b6931d248a6a48e015c1ebca6a6,
title = "Chronic Effects of Ethanol and/or Darunavir/Ritonavir on U937 Monocytic Cells: Regulation of Cytochrome P450 and Antioxidant Enzymes, Oxidative Stress, and Cytotoxicity",
abstract = "Background: Our recent study has shown that acute treatment with ethanol (EtOH) increases oxidative stress and cytotoxicity through cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1)-mediated pathway in U937 monocytic cells. U937 cells are derived from blood monocytes and are considered as the model system for HIV-related study. Since the prevalence of alcohol use in HIV-infected population is high, and HIV+ patients are on antiretroviral therapy (ART) soon after they are diagnosed, it is important to study the interactions between EtOH and ART in monocytes. Methods: This study examined the chronic effects of EtOH and ART (darunavir/ritonavir), alone and in combination, on expression/levels of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs), antioxidant enzymes (AOEs), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cytotoxicity in U937 cells. The mRNA and protein levels were measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, respectively. ROS and cytotoxicity were measured using flow cytometry and cell viability assay, respectively. Results: While chronic ART treatment increased CYP2E1 protein expression by 2-fold, EtOH and EtOH+ART increased CYP2E1 by ~5-fold. In contrast, ART and EtOH treatments decreased CYP3A4 protein expression by 38 ± 17{\%} and 74 ± 15{\%}, respectively, and the combination additively decreased CYP3A4 level by 90 ± 8{\%}. Expressions of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and peroxiredoxin (PRDX6) were decreased by both EtOH and ART, however, the expressions of SOD2 and catalase were unaltered. These results suggested increased EtOH metabolism, increased ART accumulation, and decreased defense against ROS. Therefore, we determined the effects of EtOH and ART on ROS and cytotoxicity. While ART showed a slight increase, EtOH and EtOH+ART displayed significant increase in ROS and cytotoxicity. Moreover, the combination showed additive effects on ROS and cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results suggest that chronic EtOH, in the absence and presence of ART, increases ROS and cytotoxicity in monocytes, perhaps via CYP- and AOE-mediated pathways. This study has clinical implications in HIV+ alcohol users who are on ART.",
author = "Rao, {P. S.S.} and Santosh Kumar",
year = "2016",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1111/acer.12938",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "40",
pages = "73--82",
journal = "Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research",
issn = "0145-6008",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Chronic Effects of Ethanol and/or Darunavir/Ritonavir on U937 Monocytic Cells

T2 - Regulation of Cytochrome P450 and Antioxidant Enzymes, Oxidative Stress, and Cytotoxicity

AU - Rao, P. S.S.

AU - Kumar, Santosh

PY - 2016/1/1

Y1 - 2016/1/1

N2 - Background: Our recent study has shown that acute treatment with ethanol (EtOH) increases oxidative stress and cytotoxicity through cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1)-mediated pathway in U937 monocytic cells. U937 cells are derived from blood monocytes and are considered as the model system for HIV-related study. Since the prevalence of alcohol use in HIV-infected population is high, and HIV+ patients are on antiretroviral therapy (ART) soon after they are diagnosed, it is important to study the interactions between EtOH and ART in monocytes. Methods: This study examined the chronic effects of EtOH and ART (darunavir/ritonavir), alone and in combination, on expression/levels of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs), antioxidant enzymes (AOEs), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cytotoxicity in U937 cells. The mRNA and protein levels were measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, respectively. ROS and cytotoxicity were measured using flow cytometry and cell viability assay, respectively. Results: While chronic ART treatment increased CYP2E1 protein expression by 2-fold, EtOH and EtOH+ART increased CYP2E1 by ~5-fold. In contrast, ART and EtOH treatments decreased CYP3A4 protein expression by 38 ± 17% and 74 ± 15%, respectively, and the combination additively decreased CYP3A4 level by 90 ± 8%. Expressions of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and peroxiredoxin (PRDX6) were decreased by both EtOH and ART, however, the expressions of SOD2 and catalase were unaltered. These results suggested increased EtOH metabolism, increased ART accumulation, and decreased defense against ROS. Therefore, we determined the effects of EtOH and ART on ROS and cytotoxicity. While ART showed a slight increase, EtOH and EtOH+ART displayed significant increase in ROS and cytotoxicity. Moreover, the combination showed additive effects on ROS and cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results suggest that chronic EtOH, in the absence and presence of ART, increases ROS and cytotoxicity in monocytes, perhaps via CYP- and AOE-mediated pathways. This study has clinical implications in HIV+ alcohol users who are on ART.

AB - Background: Our recent study has shown that acute treatment with ethanol (EtOH) increases oxidative stress and cytotoxicity through cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1)-mediated pathway in U937 monocytic cells. U937 cells are derived from blood monocytes and are considered as the model system for HIV-related study. Since the prevalence of alcohol use in HIV-infected population is high, and HIV+ patients are on antiretroviral therapy (ART) soon after they are diagnosed, it is important to study the interactions between EtOH and ART in monocytes. Methods: This study examined the chronic effects of EtOH and ART (darunavir/ritonavir), alone and in combination, on expression/levels of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs), antioxidant enzymes (AOEs), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cytotoxicity in U937 cells. The mRNA and protein levels were measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, respectively. ROS and cytotoxicity were measured using flow cytometry and cell viability assay, respectively. Results: While chronic ART treatment increased CYP2E1 protein expression by 2-fold, EtOH and EtOH+ART increased CYP2E1 by ~5-fold. In contrast, ART and EtOH treatments decreased CYP3A4 protein expression by 38 ± 17% and 74 ± 15%, respectively, and the combination additively decreased CYP3A4 level by 90 ± 8%. Expressions of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and peroxiredoxin (PRDX6) were decreased by both EtOH and ART, however, the expressions of SOD2 and catalase were unaltered. These results suggested increased EtOH metabolism, increased ART accumulation, and decreased defense against ROS. Therefore, we determined the effects of EtOH and ART on ROS and cytotoxicity. While ART showed a slight increase, EtOH and EtOH+ART displayed significant increase in ROS and cytotoxicity. Moreover, the combination showed additive effects on ROS and cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results suggest that chronic EtOH, in the absence and presence of ART, increases ROS and cytotoxicity in monocytes, perhaps via CYP- and AOE-mediated pathways. This study has clinical implications in HIV+ alcohol users who are on ART.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84952881908&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84952881908&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/acer.12938

DO - 10.1111/acer.12938

M3 - Article

VL - 40

SP - 73

EP - 82

JO - Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research

JF - Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research

SN - 0145-6008

IS - 1

ER -