Cigarette smoking is associated with energy balance in premenopausal African-American adult women differently than in similarly aged white women

L. H. Clemens, Robert Klesges, D. L. Slawson, A. J. Bush

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the differential association of cigarette smoking with energy balance in African-American and white premenopausal women. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of energy balance, weight, and smoking in women. SUBJECT: A total of 374 women: 191 African-American (mean age = 29.8 ± 6.5y) and 183 white women (mean age = 28.9 ± 7.1 y). MEASUREMENTS: Weight, cigarette smoking habits, resting energy expenditure, dietary intake, and physical activity. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in dietary intake by race or smoking status. The model for physical activity was significant (P = 0.0004), with body mass index (BMI) having the largest effect on activity (P<0.001). Smoking status was related to activity, with the heaviest smokers reporting more activity than nonsmokers (P= 0.008) or light smokers (P= 0.028). The model for resting energy expenditure (REE) was significant (P<0.0001), with the largest again being BMI (P<0.001). There was also an interaction between ethnicity and smoking status (P<0.0001) such that African-American nonsmokers and light smokers tended to have lower REE than several other groups, most often the African-American moderate heavy smokers. The model for BMI was significant (P<0.0001) with an interaction for ethnicity and smoking status (P = 0.0009). African-American nonsmokers and light smokers had significantly higher BMIs than most of the other groups. CONCLUSION: African-American women who were the heaviest smokers had a lower adjusted BMI than the heaviest smoking white women. This effect, at least partially, may be related to an increased REE in the African-American smoking women. While energy intake did not appear to be important in this relationship, energy expended in physical activity appeared to be increased with smoking, as was REE.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1219-1226
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Obesity
Volume27
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2003

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African Americans
Smoking
Energy Metabolism
Body Mass Index
Exercise
Weights and Measures
Energy Intake
Habits
Cross-Sectional Studies

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Cigarette smoking is associated with energy balance in premenopausal African-American adult women differently than in similarly aged white women. / Clemens, L. H.; Klesges, Robert; Slawson, D. L.; Bush, A. J.

In: International Journal of Obesity, Vol. 27, No. 10, 01.10.2003, p. 1219-1226.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "OBJECTIVE: To investigate the differential association of cigarette smoking with energy balance in African-American and white premenopausal women. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of energy balance, weight, and smoking in women. SUBJECT: A total of 374 women: 191 African-American (mean age = 29.8 ± 6.5y) and 183 white women (mean age = 28.9 ± 7.1 y). MEASUREMENTS: Weight, cigarette smoking habits, resting energy expenditure, dietary intake, and physical activity. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in dietary intake by race or smoking status. The model for physical activity was significant (P = 0.0004), with body mass index (BMI) having the largest effect on activity (P<0.001). Smoking status was related to activity, with the heaviest smokers reporting more activity than nonsmokers (P= 0.008) or light smokers (P= 0.028). The model for resting energy expenditure (REE) was significant (P<0.0001), with the largest again being BMI (P<0.001). There was also an interaction between ethnicity and smoking status (P<0.0001) such that African-American nonsmokers and light smokers tended to have lower REE than several other groups, most often the African-American moderate heavy smokers. The model for BMI was significant (P<0.0001) with an interaction for ethnicity and smoking status (P = 0.0009). African-American nonsmokers and light smokers had significantly higher BMIs than most of the other groups. CONCLUSION: African-American women who were the heaviest smokers had a lower adjusted BMI than the heaviest smoking white women. This effect, at least partially, may be related to an increased REE in the African-American smoking women. While energy intake did not appear to be important in this relationship, energy expended in physical activity appeared to be increased with smoking, as was REE.",
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N2 - OBJECTIVE: To investigate the differential association of cigarette smoking with energy balance in African-American and white premenopausal women. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of energy balance, weight, and smoking in women. SUBJECT: A total of 374 women: 191 African-American (mean age = 29.8 ± 6.5y) and 183 white women (mean age = 28.9 ± 7.1 y). MEASUREMENTS: Weight, cigarette smoking habits, resting energy expenditure, dietary intake, and physical activity. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in dietary intake by race or smoking status. The model for physical activity was significant (P = 0.0004), with body mass index (BMI) having the largest effect on activity (P<0.001). Smoking status was related to activity, with the heaviest smokers reporting more activity than nonsmokers (P= 0.008) or light smokers (P= 0.028). The model for resting energy expenditure (REE) was significant (P<0.0001), with the largest again being BMI (P<0.001). There was also an interaction between ethnicity and smoking status (P<0.0001) such that African-American nonsmokers and light smokers tended to have lower REE than several other groups, most often the African-American moderate heavy smokers. The model for BMI was significant (P<0.0001) with an interaction for ethnicity and smoking status (P = 0.0009). African-American nonsmokers and light smokers had significantly higher BMIs than most of the other groups. CONCLUSION: African-American women who were the heaviest smokers had a lower adjusted BMI than the heaviest smoking white women. This effect, at least partially, may be related to an increased REE in the African-American smoking women. While energy intake did not appear to be important in this relationship, energy expended in physical activity appeared to be increased with smoking, as was REE.

AB - OBJECTIVE: To investigate the differential association of cigarette smoking with energy balance in African-American and white premenopausal women. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of energy balance, weight, and smoking in women. SUBJECT: A total of 374 women: 191 African-American (mean age = 29.8 ± 6.5y) and 183 white women (mean age = 28.9 ± 7.1 y). MEASUREMENTS: Weight, cigarette smoking habits, resting energy expenditure, dietary intake, and physical activity. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in dietary intake by race or smoking status. The model for physical activity was significant (P = 0.0004), with body mass index (BMI) having the largest effect on activity (P<0.001). Smoking status was related to activity, with the heaviest smokers reporting more activity than nonsmokers (P= 0.008) or light smokers (P= 0.028). The model for resting energy expenditure (REE) was significant (P<0.0001), with the largest again being BMI (P<0.001). There was also an interaction between ethnicity and smoking status (P<0.0001) such that African-American nonsmokers and light smokers tended to have lower REE than several other groups, most often the African-American moderate heavy smokers. The model for BMI was significant (P<0.0001) with an interaction for ethnicity and smoking status (P = 0.0009). African-American nonsmokers and light smokers had significantly higher BMIs than most of the other groups. CONCLUSION: African-American women who were the heaviest smokers had a lower adjusted BMI than the heaviest smoking white women. This effect, at least partially, may be related to an increased REE in the African-American smoking women. While energy intake did not appear to be important in this relationship, energy expended in physical activity appeared to be increased with smoking, as was REE.

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