Crystal structure of the 65-kilodalton amino-terminal fragment of DNA topoisomerase I from the gram-positive model organism Streptococcus mutans

Jesse A. Jones, Kirk Hevener

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Herein we report the first structure of topoisomerase I determined from the gram-positive bacterium, S. mutans. Bacterial topoisomerase I is an ATP-independent type 1A topoisomerase that uses the inherent torsional strain within hyper-negatively supercoiled DNA as an energy source for its critical function of DNA relaxation. Interest in the enzyme has gained momentum as it has proven to be essential in various bacterial organisms. In order to aid in further biochemical characterization, the apo 65-kDa amino-terminal fragment of DNA topoisomerase I from the gram-positive model organism Streptococcus mutans was crystalized and a three-dimensional structure was determined to 2.06 Å resolution via x-ray crystallography. The overall structure illustrates the four classic major domains that create the traditional topoisomerase I “lock” formation comprised of a sizable toroidal aperture atop what is considered to be a highly dynamic body. A catalytic tyrosine residue resides at the interface between two domains and is known to form a 5’ phosphotyrosine DNA-enzyme intermediate during transient single-stranded cleavage required for enzymatic relaxation of hyper negative DNA supercoils. Surrounding the catalytic tyrosine residue is the remainder of the highly conserved active site. Within 5 Å from the catalytic center, only one dissimilar residue is observed between topoisomerase I from S. mutans and the gram-negative model organism E. coli. Immediately adjacent to the conserved active site, however, S. mutans topoisomerase I displays a somewhat unique nine residue loop extension not present in any bacterial topoisomerase I structures previously determined other than that of an extremophile.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)333-338
Number of pages6
JournalBiochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Volume516
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 20 2019

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Type I DNA Topoisomerase
Streptococcus mutans
Crystal structure
Tyrosine
DNA
Catalytic Domain
Superhelical DNA
Crystallography
Phosphotyrosine
Gram-Positive Bacteria
Enzymes
Escherichia coli
Bacteria
Momentum
Adenosine Triphosphate
X-Rays
X rays

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biophysics
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

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title = "Crystal structure of the 65-kilodalton amino-terminal fragment of DNA topoisomerase I from the gram-positive model organism Streptococcus mutans",
abstract = "Herein we report the first structure of topoisomerase I determined from the gram-positive bacterium, S. mutans. Bacterial topoisomerase I is an ATP-independent type 1A topoisomerase that uses the inherent torsional strain within hyper-negatively supercoiled DNA as an energy source for its critical function of DNA relaxation. Interest in the enzyme has gained momentum as it has proven to be essential in various bacterial organisms. In order to aid in further biochemical characterization, the apo 65-kDa amino-terminal fragment of DNA topoisomerase I from the gram-positive model organism Streptococcus mutans was crystalized and a three-dimensional structure was determined to 2.06 {\AA} resolution via x-ray crystallography. The overall structure illustrates the four classic major domains that create the traditional topoisomerase I “lock” formation comprised of a sizable toroidal aperture atop what is considered to be a highly dynamic body. A catalytic tyrosine residue resides at the interface between two domains and is known to form a 5’ phosphotyrosine DNA-enzyme intermediate during transient single-stranded cleavage required for enzymatic relaxation of hyper negative DNA supercoils. Surrounding the catalytic tyrosine residue is the remainder of the highly conserved active site. Within 5 {\AA} from the catalytic center, only one dissimilar residue is observed between topoisomerase I from S. mutans and the gram-negative model organism E. coli. Immediately adjacent to the conserved active site, however, S. mutans topoisomerase I displays a somewhat unique nine residue loop extension not present in any bacterial topoisomerase I structures previously determined other than that of an extremophile.",
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N2 - Herein we report the first structure of topoisomerase I determined from the gram-positive bacterium, S. mutans. Bacterial topoisomerase I is an ATP-independent type 1A topoisomerase that uses the inherent torsional strain within hyper-negatively supercoiled DNA as an energy source for its critical function of DNA relaxation. Interest in the enzyme has gained momentum as it has proven to be essential in various bacterial organisms. In order to aid in further biochemical characterization, the apo 65-kDa amino-terminal fragment of DNA topoisomerase I from the gram-positive model organism Streptococcus mutans was crystalized and a three-dimensional structure was determined to 2.06 Å resolution via x-ray crystallography. The overall structure illustrates the four classic major domains that create the traditional topoisomerase I “lock” formation comprised of a sizable toroidal aperture atop what is considered to be a highly dynamic body. A catalytic tyrosine residue resides at the interface between two domains and is known to form a 5’ phosphotyrosine DNA-enzyme intermediate during transient single-stranded cleavage required for enzymatic relaxation of hyper negative DNA supercoils. Surrounding the catalytic tyrosine residue is the remainder of the highly conserved active site. Within 5 Å from the catalytic center, only one dissimilar residue is observed between topoisomerase I from S. mutans and the gram-negative model organism E. coli. Immediately adjacent to the conserved active site, however, S. mutans topoisomerase I displays a somewhat unique nine residue loop extension not present in any bacterial topoisomerase I structures previously determined other than that of an extremophile.

AB - Herein we report the first structure of topoisomerase I determined from the gram-positive bacterium, S. mutans. Bacterial topoisomerase I is an ATP-independent type 1A topoisomerase that uses the inherent torsional strain within hyper-negatively supercoiled DNA as an energy source for its critical function of DNA relaxation. Interest in the enzyme has gained momentum as it has proven to be essential in various bacterial organisms. In order to aid in further biochemical characterization, the apo 65-kDa amino-terminal fragment of DNA topoisomerase I from the gram-positive model organism Streptococcus mutans was crystalized and a three-dimensional structure was determined to 2.06 Å resolution via x-ray crystallography. The overall structure illustrates the four classic major domains that create the traditional topoisomerase I “lock” formation comprised of a sizable toroidal aperture atop what is considered to be a highly dynamic body. A catalytic tyrosine residue resides at the interface between two domains and is known to form a 5’ phosphotyrosine DNA-enzyme intermediate during transient single-stranded cleavage required for enzymatic relaxation of hyper negative DNA supercoils. Surrounding the catalytic tyrosine residue is the remainder of the highly conserved active site. Within 5 Å from the catalytic center, only one dissimilar residue is observed between topoisomerase I from S. mutans and the gram-negative model organism E. coli. Immediately adjacent to the conserved active site, however, S. mutans topoisomerase I displays a somewhat unique nine residue loop extension not present in any bacterial topoisomerase I structures previously determined other than that of an extremophile.

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