Dielectrophoresis enhances the whitening effect of carbamide peroxide on enamel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Purpose: To compare the enamel whitening effect of a 20-minute dielectrophoresis enhanced electrochemical delivery to a 20-minute diffusion treatment. Methods: Forty freshly extracted human teeth without detectable caries or restoration were stored in distilled water at 4°C and used within 1 month of extraction. Two different bleaching gels (Plus White 5 Minute Speed Whitening Gel and 35% Opalescence PF gel) were tested. The study had two parts: Part 1 Quantitative comparison of hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2, HP) absorption - following application of an over-the-counter 35% HP whitening gel (Plus White 5 Minute Speed Whitening Gel) to 30 (n=30) extracted human teeth by conventional diffusion or dielectrophoresis. The amount of H 2O 2 that diffused from the dentin was measured by a colorimetric oxidation-reduction reaction kit. HP concentration was measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy at 550 nm. Part 2 - HP diffusion in stained teeth - 35% carbamide peroxide whitening gel (35% Opalescence PF gel) was applied to 10 extracted human teeth (n=10) stained by immersion in a black tea solution for 48 hours. The teeth were randomly assigned to the 20-minute dielectrophoresis or diffusion treatment group; whitening was evaluated by a dental spectrophotometer and macrophotography. Results: Part 1 : The analysis found significant differences between both groups with relative percent errors of 3% or less (a single outlier had an RPE of 12%). The average absorbance for the dielectrophoresis group in round 1 was 79% greater than the diffusion group. The average absorbance for the dielectrophoresis group in round 2 was 130% greater than the diffusion group. A single-factor ANOVA found a statistically significant difference between the diffusion and dielectrophoresis groups (P= 0.01). Part 2 - The average change in Shade Guide Units (SGU) was 0.6 for the diffusion group, well under the error of measurement of 0.82 SGU. The average change in SGU for the dielectrophoresis group was 9, significantly above the error of measurement and 14 times or 1,400% greater than the diffusion group average. A singlefactor ANOVA found a statistically significant difference between the diffusion and dielectrophoresis treatment groups.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)259-263
Number of pages5
JournalAmerican Journal of Dentistry
Volume24
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2011

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Dental Enamel
Gels
Tooth
Analysis of Variance
carbamide peroxide
Immersion
Tea
Dentin
Hydrogen Peroxide
Oxidation-Reduction
Spectrum Analysis
Water

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Dentistry(all)

Cite this

Dielectrophoresis enhances the whitening effect of carbamide peroxide on enamel. / Ivanoff, Chris; Hottel, Timothy; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Riga, Alan T.

In: American Journal of Dentistry, Vol. 24, No. 5, 10.2011, p. 259-263.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Purpose: To compare the enamel whitening effect of a 20-minute dielectrophoresis enhanced electrochemical delivery to a 20-minute diffusion treatment. Methods: Forty freshly extracted human teeth without detectable caries or restoration were stored in distilled water at 4°C and used within 1 month of extraction. Two different bleaching gels (Plus White 5 Minute Speed Whitening Gel and 35{\%} Opalescence PF gel) were tested. The study had two parts: Part 1 Quantitative comparison of hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2, HP) absorption - following application of an over-the-counter 35{\%} HP whitening gel (Plus White 5 Minute Speed Whitening Gel) to 30 (n=30) extracted human teeth by conventional diffusion or dielectrophoresis. The amount of H 2O 2 that diffused from the dentin was measured by a colorimetric oxidation-reduction reaction kit. HP concentration was measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy at 550 nm. Part 2 - HP diffusion in stained teeth - 35{\%} carbamide peroxide whitening gel (35{\%} Opalescence PF gel) was applied to 10 extracted human teeth (n=10) stained by immersion in a black tea solution for 48 hours. The teeth were randomly assigned to the 20-minute dielectrophoresis or diffusion treatment group; whitening was evaluated by a dental spectrophotometer and macrophotography. Results: Part 1 : The analysis found significant differences between both groups with relative percent errors of 3{\%} or less (a single outlier had an RPE of 12{\%}). The average absorbance for the dielectrophoresis group in round 1 was 79{\%} greater than the diffusion group. The average absorbance for the dielectrophoresis group in round 2 was 130{\%} greater than the diffusion group. A single-factor ANOVA found a statistically significant difference between the diffusion and dielectrophoresis groups (P= 0.01). Part 2 - The average change in Shade Guide Units (SGU) was 0.6 for the diffusion group, well under the error of measurement of 0.82 SGU. The average change in SGU for the dielectrophoresis group was 9, significantly above the error of measurement and 14 times or 1,400{\%} greater than the diffusion group average. A singlefactor ANOVA found a statistically significant difference between the diffusion and dielectrophoresis treatment groups.",
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