Disorders of the adrenal glands

The neurologists’ point of view

Tulio Bertorini, Lihong Shen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Disorders of the adrenal glands could be primary or secondary to abnormal hypothalamic pituitary function, caused either by a decreased hormonal production such as in Addison’s disease or increased production such as in Cushing’s disease which symptoms could also be caused by therapeutic use of corticosteroids. In order to acquire proper knowledge and understanding of these disorders, the anatomy and physiology of the adrenal glands must be understood. The adrenal cortex has 3 defined functional areas, the zona reticularis adjacent to the medulla secretes sex hormones, and the middle zona fasciculata secretes corticosteroids. Both of these are under the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. The outer area on zona glomerulosa secretes minerocorticoids and is controlled by the adrenal-angiotension system. The adrenal medulla produces catecholamines from secreting chromaffin cells. Diseases of the different areas adrenal glands are very important for neurologists as they can manifest with neurological symptoms particularly those caused by excessive or deficient corticosteroid production. There are other disorders that affect both the adrenal glands and the nervous system independently and their neurological manifestations are not caused by adrenal dysfunction such as, for example, adrenoleukodystrophy, which is a metabolic hereditary disorder of the central nervous system and adrenal myeloneuropathy that also affects the peripheral nervous system. Some mitochondrial diseases like Kearns Sayre syndrome have multisystem manifestations that includes a myopathy and endocrine dysfunction. This chapter discusses the disorders of the adrenal glands, their clinical manifestations, diagnosis and management.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAdrenal Glands
Subtitle of host publicationFrom Pathophysiology to Clinical Evidence
PublisherNova Science Publishers, Inc.
Pages333-360
Number of pages28
ISBN (Electronic)9781634835701
ISBN (Print)9781634835503
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015

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Adrenal Glands
Adrenal Cortex Hormones
Kearns-Sayre Syndrome
Metabolic Brain Diseases
Zona Reticularis
Zona Fasciculata
Adrenoleukodystrophy
Zona Glomerulosa
Addison Disease
Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion
Mitochondrial Diseases
Chromaffin Cells
Adrenal Medulla
Adrenal Cortex
Peripheral Nervous System
Gonadal Steroid Hormones
Therapeutic Uses
Muscular Diseases
Neurologic Manifestations
Nervous System

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Bertorini, T., & Shen, L. (2015). Disorders of the adrenal glands: The neurologists’ point of view. In Adrenal Glands: From Pathophysiology to Clinical Evidence (pp. 333-360). Nova Science Publishers, Inc..

Disorders of the adrenal glands : The neurologists’ point of view. / Bertorini, Tulio; Shen, Lihong.

Adrenal Glands: From Pathophysiology to Clinical Evidence. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2015. p. 333-360.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Bertorini, T & Shen, L 2015, Disorders of the adrenal glands: The neurologists’ point of view. in Adrenal Glands: From Pathophysiology to Clinical Evidence. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., pp. 333-360.
Bertorini T, Shen L. Disorders of the adrenal glands: The neurologists’ point of view. In Adrenal Glands: From Pathophysiology to Clinical Evidence. Nova Science Publishers, Inc. 2015. p. 333-360
Bertorini, Tulio ; Shen, Lihong. / Disorders of the adrenal glands : The neurologists’ point of view. Adrenal Glands: From Pathophysiology to Clinical Evidence. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2015. pp. 333-360
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