Does prolonged severe hypercapnia interfere with normal cerebrovascular function in piglets?

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Abstract

Background: Hypercapnia causes cerebral vasodilation and increased cerebral blood flow (CBF). During prolonged hypercapnia it is unknown whether cerebral vasodilation persists and whether cerebrovascular function is preserved. We investigated the effects of prolonged severe hypercapnia on pial arteriolar diameters (PAD) and cerebrovascular reactivity to vasodilators and vasoconstrictors. Methods: Piglets were anesthetized, intubated and ventilated. Closed cranial windows were implanted to measure PAD. Changes in PAD were documented during hypercapnia (PaCO2 75–80 mm Hg). Cerebrovascular reactivity was documented during normocapnia and at 30, 60, and 120 min of hypercapnia. Results: Cerebral vasodilation to hypercapnia was sustained over 120 min. Cerebrovascular responses to vasodilators and vasoconstrictors were preserved during hypercapnia. During hypercapnia, vasodilatory responses to second vasodilators were similar to normocapnia, while exposure to vasoconstrictors caused significant vasoconstriction. Conclusions: Prolonged severe hypercapnia causes sustained vasodilation of pial arteriolar diameters indicative of hyperperfusion. During hypercapnia, cerebral vascular responses to vasodilators and vasoconstrictors were preserved, suggesting that cerebral vascular function remained intact. Of note, cerebral vessels during hypercapnia were capable of further dilation when exposed to additional cerebral vasodilators and, significant vasoconstriction when exposed to vasoconstrictors. Extrapolating these findings to infants, we suggest that severe hypercapnia should be avoided, because it could cause/increase cerebrovascular injury.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)290-295
Number of pages6
JournalPediatric Research
Volume84
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2018

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Hypercapnia
Vasoconstrictor Agents
Vasodilator Agents
Vasodilation
Vasoconstriction
Blood Vessels
Cerebrovascular Circulation
Dilatation

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Cite this

@article{e79c9f5663554c279363c9c1d36ba70e,
title = "Does prolonged severe hypercapnia interfere with normal cerebrovascular function in piglets?",
abstract = "Background: Hypercapnia causes cerebral vasodilation and increased cerebral blood flow (CBF). During prolonged hypercapnia it is unknown whether cerebral vasodilation persists and whether cerebrovascular function is preserved. We investigated the effects of prolonged severe hypercapnia on pial arteriolar diameters (PAD) and cerebrovascular reactivity to vasodilators and vasoconstrictors. Methods: Piglets were anesthetized, intubated and ventilated. Closed cranial windows were implanted to measure PAD. Changes in PAD were documented during hypercapnia (PaCO2 75–80 mm Hg). Cerebrovascular reactivity was documented during normocapnia and at 30, 60, and 120 min of hypercapnia. Results: Cerebral vasodilation to hypercapnia was sustained over 120 min. Cerebrovascular responses to vasodilators and vasoconstrictors were preserved during hypercapnia. During hypercapnia, vasodilatory responses to second vasodilators were similar to normocapnia, while exposure to vasoconstrictors caused significant vasoconstriction. Conclusions: Prolonged severe hypercapnia causes sustained vasodilation of pial arteriolar diameters indicative of hyperperfusion. During hypercapnia, cerebral vascular responses to vasodilators and vasoconstrictors were preserved, suggesting that cerebral vascular function remained intact. Of note, cerebral vessels during hypercapnia were capable of further dilation when exposed to additional cerebral vasodilators and, significant vasoconstriction when exposed to vasoconstrictors. Extrapolating these findings to infants, we suggest that severe hypercapnia should be avoided, because it could cause/increase cerebrovascular injury.",
author = "Massroor Pourcyrous and Sandeep Chilakala and Mohamad Elabiad and Elena Parfenova and Charles Leffler",
year = "2018",
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doi = "10.1038/s41390-018-0061-5",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "84",
pages = "290--295",
journal = "Pediatric Research",
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T1 - Does prolonged severe hypercapnia interfere with normal cerebrovascular function in piglets?

AU - Pourcyrous, Massroor

AU - Chilakala, Sandeep

AU - Elabiad, Mohamad

AU - Parfenova, Elena

AU - Leffler, Charles

PY - 2018/8/1

Y1 - 2018/8/1

N2 - Background: Hypercapnia causes cerebral vasodilation and increased cerebral blood flow (CBF). During prolonged hypercapnia it is unknown whether cerebral vasodilation persists and whether cerebrovascular function is preserved. We investigated the effects of prolonged severe hypercapnia on pial arteriolar diameters (PAD) and cerebrovascular reactivity to vasodilators and vasoconstrictors. Methods: Piglets were anesthetized, intubated and ventilated. Closed cranial windows were implanted to measure PAD. Changes in PAD were documented during hypercapnia (PaCO2 75–80 mm Hg). Cerebrovascular reactivity was documented during normocapnia and at 30, 60, and 120 min of hypercapnia. Results: Cerebral vasodilation to hypercapnia was sustained over 120 min. Cerebrovascular responses to vasodilators and vasoconstrictors were preserved during hypercapnia. During hypercapnia, vasodilatory responses to second vasodilators were similar to normocapnia, while exposure to vasoconstrictors caused significant vasoconstriction. Conclusions: Prolonged severe hypercapnia causes sustained vasodilation of pial arteriolar diameters indicative of hyperperfusion. During hypercapnia, cerebral vascular responses to vasodilators and vasoconstrictors were preserved, suggesting that cerebral vascular function remained intact. Of note, cerebral vessels during hypercapnia were capable of further dilation when exposed to additional cerebral vasodilators and, significant vasoconstriction when exposed to vasoconstrictors. Extrapolating these findings to infants, we suggest that severe hypercapnia should be avoided, because it could cause/increase cerebrovascular injury.

AB - Background: Hypercapnia causes cerebral vasodilation and increased cerebral blood flow (CBF). During prolonged hypercapnia it is unknown whether cerebral vasodilation persists and whether cerebrovascular function is preserved. We investigated the effects of prolonged severe hypercapnia on pial arteriolar diameters (PAD) and cerebrovascular reactivity to vasodilators and vasoconstrictors. Methods: Piglets were anesthetized, intubated and ventilated. Closed cranial windows were implanted to measure PAD. Changes in PAD were documented during hypercapnia (PaCO2 75–80 mm Hg). Cerebrovascular reactivity was documented during normocapnia and at 30, 60, and 120 min of hypercapnia. Results: Cerebral vasodilation to hypercapnia was sustained over 120 min. Cerebrovascular responses to vasodilators and vasoconstrictors were preserved during hypercapnia. During hypercapnia, vasodilatory responses to second vasodilators were similar to normocapnia, while exposure to vasoconstrictors caused significant vasoconstriction. Conclusions: Prolonged severe hypercapnia causes sustained vasodilation of pial arteriolar diameters indicative of hyperperfusion. During hypercapnia, cerebral vascular responses to vasodilators and vasoconstrictors were preserved, suggesting that cerebral vascular function remained intact. Of note, cerebral vessels during hypercapnia were capable of further dilation when exposed to additional cerebral vasodilators and, significant vasoconstriction when exposed to vasoconstrictors. Extrapolating these findings to infants, we suggest that severe hypercapnia should be avoided, because it could cause/increase cerebrovascular injury.

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