Effect of age and dialysis vintage on obesity paradox in long-term hemodialysis patients

Tania Vashistha, Rajnish Mehrotra, Jongha Park, Elani Streja, Ramnath Dukkipati, Allen R. Nissenson, Jennie Z. Ma, Csaba Kovesdy, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

45 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background In contrast to the general population, higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with greater survival in patients receiving hemodialysis (HD; "obesity paradox"). We hypothesized that this paradoxical association between BMI and death may be modified by age and dialysis vintage. Study Design Retrospective observational study using a large HD patient cohort. Setting & Participants 123,383 maintenance HD patients treated in DaVita dialysis clinics between July 1, 2001, and June 30, 2006, with follow-up through September 30, 2009. Predictors Age, dialysis vintage, and time-averaged BMI. Time-averaged BMI was divided into 6 subgroups; <18.5, 18.5-<23.0, 23.0-<25.0, 25.0-<30.0, 30.0-<35.0, and ≥35.0 kg/m2. BMI category of 23-<25 kg/m2 was used as the reference category. Outcomes All-cause, cardiovascular, and infection-related mortality. Results Mean BMI of study participants was 27 ± 7 kg/m2. Time-averaged BMI was <18.5 and ≥35 kg/m2 in 5% and 11% of patients, respectively. With progressively higher time-averaged BMI, there was progressively lower all-cause, cardiovascular, and infection-related mortality in patients younger than 65 years. In those 65 years or older, even though overweight/obese patients had lower mortality compared with underweight/normal- weight patients, sequential increases in time-averaged BMI was > 25 kg/m 2 added no additional benefit. Based on dialysis vintage, incident HD patients had greater all-cause and cardiovascular survival benefit with a higher time-averaged BMI compared with the longer term HD patients. Limitations Causality cannot be determined, and residual confounding cannot be excluded given the observational study design. Conclusions Higher BMI is associated with lower death risk across all age and dialysis vintage groups. This benefit is more pronounced in incident HD patients and those younger than 65 years. Given the robustness of the survival advantage of higher BMI, examining interventions to maintain or even increase dry weight in HD patients irrespective of age and vintage are warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)612-622
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases
Volume63
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014

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Renal Dialysis
Dialysis
Body Mass Index
Obesity
Observational Studies
Survival
Causality
Retrospective Studies
Maintenance
Weights and Measures
Population

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Nephrology

Cite this

Vashistha, T., Mehrotra, R., Park, J., Streja, E., Dukkipati, R., Nissenson, A. R., ... Kalantar-Zadeh, K. (2014). Effect of age and dialysis vintage on obesity paradox in long-term hemodialysis patients. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 63(4), 612-622. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2013.07.021

Effect of age and dialysis vintage on obesity paradox in long-term hemodialysis patients. / Vashistha, Tania; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Park, Jongha; Streja, Elani; Dukkipati, Ramnath; Nissenson, Allen R.; Ma, Jennie Z.; Kovesdy, Csaba; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar.

In: American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Vol. 63, No. 4, 01.01.2014, p. 612-622.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Vashistha, T, Mehrotra, R, Park, J, Streja, E, Dukkipati, R, Nissenson, AR, Ma, JZ, Kovesdy, C & Kalantar-Zadeh, K 2014, 'Effect of age and dialysis vintage on obesity paradox in long-term hemodialysis patients', American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 612-622. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2013.07.021
Vashistha, Tania ; Mehrotra, Rajnish ; Park, Jongha ; Streja, Elani ; Dukkipati, Ramnath ; Nissenson, Allen R. ; Ma, Jennie Z. ; Kovesdy, Csaba ; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar. / Effect of age and dialysis vintage on obesity paradox in long-term hemodialysis patients. In: American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 2014 ; Vol. 63, No. 4. pp. 612-622.
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T1 - Effect of age and dialysis vintage on obesity paradox in long-term hemodialysis patients

AU - Vashistha, Tania

AU - Mehrotra, Rajnish

AU - Park, Jongha

AU - Streja, Elani

AU - Dukkipati, Ramnath

AU - Nissenson, Allen R.

AU - Ma, Jennie Z.

AU - Kovesdy, Csaba

AU - Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

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N2 - Background In contrast to the general population, higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with greater survival in patients receiving hemodialysis (HD; "obesity paradox"). We hypothesized that this paradoxical association between BMI and death may be modified by age and dialysis vintage. Study Design Retrospective observational study using a large HD patient cohort. Setting & Participants 123,383 maintenance HD patients treated in DaVita dialysis clinics between July 1, 2001, and June 30, 2006, with follow-up through September 30, 2009. Predictors Age, dialysis vintage, and time-averaged BMI. Time-averaged BMI was divided into 6 subgroups; <18.5, 18.5-<23.0, 23.0-<25.0, 25.0-<30.0, 30.0-<35.0, and ≥35.0 kg/m2. BMI category of 23-<25 kg/m2 was used as the reference category. Outcomes All-cause, cardiovascular, and infection-related mortality. Results Mean BMI of study participants was 27 ± 7 kg/m2. Time-averaged BMI was <18.5 and ≥35 kg/m2 in 5% and 11% of patients, respectively. With progressively higher time-averaged BMI, there was progressively lower all-cause, cardiovascular, and infection-related mortality in patients younger than 65 years. In those 65 years or older, even though overweight/obese patients had lower mortality compared with underweight/normal- weight patients, sequential increases in time-averaged BMI was > 25 kg/m 2 added no additional benefit. Based on dialysis vintage, incident HD patients had greater all-cause and cardiovascular survival benefit with a higher time-averaged BMI compared with the longer term HD patients. Limitations Causality cannot be determined, and residual confounding cannot be excluded given the observational study design. Conclusions Higher BMI is associated with lower death risk across all age and dialysis vintage groups. This benefit is more pronounced in incident HD patients and those younger than 65 years. Given the robustness of the survival advantage of higher BMI, examining interventions to maintain or even increase dry weight in HD patients irrespective of age and vintage are warranted.

AB - Background In contrast to the general population, higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with greater survival in patients receiving hemodialysis (HD; "obesity paradox"). We hypothesized that this paradoxical association between BMI and death may be modified by age and dialysis vintage. Study Design Retrospective observational study using a large HD patient cohort. Setting & Participants 123,383 maintenance HD patients treated in DaVita dialysis clinics between July 1, 2001, and June 30, 2006, with follow-up through September 30, 2009. Predictors Age, dialysis vintage, and time-averaged BMI. Time-averaged BMI was divided into 6 subgroups; <18.5, 18.5-<23.0, 23.0-<25.0, 25.0-<30.0, 30.0-<35.0, and ≥35.0 kg/m2. BMI category of 23-<25 kg/m2 was used as the reference category. Outcomes All-cause, cardiovascular, and infection-related mortality. Results Mean BMI of study participants was 27 ± 7 kg/m2. Time-averaged BMI was <18.5 and ≥35 kg/m2 in 5% and 11% of patients, respectively. With progressively higher time-averaged BMI, there was progressively lower all-cause, cardiovascular, and infection-related mortality in patients younger than 65 years. In those 65 years or older, even though overweight/obese patients had lower mortality compared with underweight/normal- weight patients, sequential increases in time-averaged BMI was > 25 kg/m 2 added no additional benefit. Based on dialysis vintage, incident HD patients had greater all-cause and cardiovascular survival benefit with a higher time-averaged BMI compared with the longer term HD patients. Limitations Causality cannot be determined, and residual confounding cannot be excluded given the observational study design. Conclusions Higher BMI is associated with lower death risk across all age and dialysis vintage groups. This benefit is more pronounced in incident HD patients and those younger than 65 years. Given the robustness of the survival advantage of higher BMI, examining interventions to maintain or even increase dry weight in HD patients irrespective of age and vintage are warranted.

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