Effect of APF minute-foam on the surface roughness, hardness, and micromorphology of high-viscosity glass ionomers

Franklin Garcia-Godoy, Alexander García-Godoy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of Oral-B APF Minute-Foam on the surface roughness, hardness and morphology of high-viscosity glass-ionomer cements (GICs). Methods: The GICs used were Fuji IX GP and Ketac-Molar. The controls were Vitremer resinmodified GIC and Fuji II conventional GIC. All materials were mixed to a restorative consistency. The encapsulated GICs were mixed with a Rotomix for 10 seconds. For each GIC, 14 specimens (6 mm in diameter and 3 mm thick) were made with a Teflon mold and a fresh mix for each sample. The specimens were allowed to set at room temperature for 15 minutes, and then stored in water at room temperature for 48 hours. Profilometry and microhardness measurements (Knoop) were obtained on the untreated specimens as baseline data. The specimens were then rinsed with water, gently air-dried and 1.23% APF Minute-Foam was applied for 1 minute with a brush, rinsed with water, gently air-dried, and hardness and roughness remeasured. In another set, similar measurements were obtained as before but after a 4 minute application of the APF foam. In a different set similar measurements were obtained as before but after a simulated 2-year application of the APF foam. The data were statistically analyzed using an ANOVA. The Student-Newman-Keuls method and Bonferroni tests (P=.05) were used for multiple comparisons of the means. The SEM was used to evaluate the APF effects on the surface micromorphology of the materials. Results: Foam application time had no statistically significant effect on the surface roughness of Ketac-Molar and Vitremer. Fuji IX GP showed that 1 and 4 minute applications had lower values than after 2 years. Fuji II revealed similar roughness for the control at 1 and 4 minutes, but higher values after 2 years. Fuji IX GP proved no significant difference in hardness after the different application times. Ketac-Molar demonstrated less hardness than the control at 1 and 4 minutes but higher after 2 years. Foam application time had no statistically significant effect on the surface hardness of Vitremer. Fuji II showed 1 minute had harder values than 4 minutes and 2 years; the control was harder than 2 years. Conclusions: The SEM observations revealed that surface micromorphology was not significantly affected by the use of the Oral-B APF Minute-Foam. Treatment with the APF foam tested may be material dependent. It seems to be preferable to apply them for shorter times (1 minute versus 4 minutes) to reduce any adverse effect.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)19-23
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Dentistry for Children
Volume70
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2003

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Glass Ionomer Cements
Hardness
Viscosity
Water
Air
Temperature
Polytetrafluoroethylene
glass ionomer
Analysis of Variance
Fungi
Students
ketac-molar
Fuji glass-ionomer lining cement
fuji IX
Vitremer

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Dentistry(all)

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Effect of APF minute-foam on the surface roughness, hardness, and micromorphology of high-viscosity glass ionomers. / Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; García-Godoy, Alexander.

In: Journal of Dentistry for Children, Vol. 70, No. 1, 01.01.2003, p. 19-23.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of Oral-B APF Minute-Foam on the surface roughness, hardness and morphology of high-viscosity glass-ionomer cements (GICs). Methods: The GICs used were Fuji IX GP and Ketac-Molar. The controls were Vitremer resinmodified GIC and Fuji II conventional GIC. All materials were mixed to a restorative consistency. The encapsulated GICs were mixed with a Rotomix for 10 seconds. For each GIC, 14 specimens (6 mm in diameter and 3 mm thick) were made with a Teflon mold and a fresh mix for each sample. The specimens were allowed to set at room temperature for 15 minutes, and then stored in water at room temperature for 48 hours. Profilometry and microhardness measurements (Knoop) were obtained on the untreated specimens as baseline data. The specimens were then rinsed with water, gently air-dried and 1.23{\%} APF Minute-Foam was applied for 1 minute with a brush, rinsed with water, gently air-dried, and hardness and roughness remeasured. In another set, similar measurements were obtained as before but after a 4 minute application of the APF foam. In a different set similar measurements were obtained as before but after a simulated 2-year application of the APF foam. The data were statistically analyzed using an ANOVA. The Student-Newman-Keuls method and Bonferroni tests (P=.05) were used for multiple comparisons of the means. The SEM was used to evaluate the APF effects on the surface micromorphology of the materials. Results: Foam application time had no statistically significant effect on the surface roughness of Ketac-Molar and Vitremer. Fuji IX GP showed that 1 and 4 minute applications had lower values than after 2 years. Fuji II revealed similar roughness for the control at 1 and 4 minutes, but higher values after 2 years. Fuji IX GP proved no significant difference in hardness after the different application times. Ketac-Molar demonstrated less hardness than the control at 1 and 4 minutes but higher after 2 years. Foam application time had no statistically significant effect on the surface hardness of Vitremer. Fuji II showed 1 minute had harder values than 4 minutes and 2 years; the control was harder than 2 years. Conclusions: The SEM observations revealed that surface micromorphology was not significantly affected by the use of the Oral-B APF Minute-Foam. Treatment with the APF foam tested may be material dependent. It seems to be preferable to apply them for shorter times (1 minute versus 4 minutes) to reduce any adverse effect.",
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N2 - Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of Oral-B APF Minute-Foam on the surface roughness, hardness and morphology of high-viscosity glass-ionomer cements (GICs). Methods: The GICs used were Fuji IX GP and Ketac-Molar. The controls were Vitremer resinmodified GIC and Fuji II conventional GIC. All materials were mixed to a restorative consistency. The encapsulated GICs were mixed with a Rotomix for 10 seconds. For each GIC, 14 specimens (6 mm in diameter and 3 mm thick) were made with a Teflon mold and a fresh mix for each sample. The specimens were allowed to set at room temperature for 15 minutes, and then stored in water at room temperature for 48 hours. Profilometry and microhardness measurements (Knoop) were obtained on the untreated specimens as baseline data. The specimens were then rinsed with water, gently air-dried and 1.23% APF Minute-Foam was applied for 1 minute with a brush, rinsed with water, gently air-dried, and hardness and roughness remeasured. In another set, similar measurements were obtained as before but after a 4 minute application of the APF foam. In a different set similar measurements were obtained as before but after a simulated 2-year application of the APF foam. The data were statistically analyzed using an ANOVA. The Student-Newman-Keuls method and Bonferroni tests (P=.05) were used for multiple comparisons of the means. The SEM was used to evaluate the APF effects on the surface micromorphology of the materials. Results: Foam application time had no statistically significant effect on the surface roughness of Ketac-Molar and Vitremer. Fuji IX GP showed that 1 and 4 minute applications had lower values than after 2 years. Fuji II revealed similar roughness for the control at 1 and 4 minutes, but higher values after 2 years. Fuji IX GP proved no significant difference in hardness after the different application times. Ketac-Molar demonstrated less hardness than the control at 1 and 4 minutes but higher after 2 years. Foam application time had no statistically significant effect on the surface hardness of Vitremer. Fuji II showed 1 minute had harder values than 4 minutes and 2 years; the control was harder than 2 years. Conclusions: The SEM observations revealed that surface micromorphology was not significantly affected by the use of the Oral-B APF Minute-Foam. Treatment with the APF foam tested may be material dependent. It seems to be preferable to apply them for shorter times (1 minute versus 4 minutes) to reduce any adverse effect.

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