Effects of Longitudinal Glucose Exposure on Cognitive and Physical Function

Results from the Action for Health in Diabetes Movement and Memory Study

the Action for Health in Diabetes Movement and Memory Ancillary Study Research Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives: To test whether average long-term glucose exposure is associated with cognitive and physical function in middle-aged and younger-old adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Data obtained as part of the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial (NCT00017953) and Look AHEAD Movement and Memory ancillary study (NCT01410097). Participants: Overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus aged 45 to 76 at baseline (N = 879). Measurements: Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured at regular intervals over 7 years, and objective measures of cognitive function (Trail-Making Test, Modified Stroop Color-Word Test, Digit Symbol-Coding, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Modified Mini-Mental State Examination) and physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery, expanded Physical Performance Battery, 400-m and 20-m gait speed) and strength (grip and knee extensor strength) were assessed at the Year 8 or 9 follow-up examination. Results: Average HbA1c exposure was 7.0 ± 1.1% (53 ± 11.6 mmol/mol), with 57% of participants classified as having HbA1c levels of less than 7% (<53 mmol/mol), 27% having levels of 7% to 8% (53–64 mmol/mol), and 16% having levels of greater than 8% (>64 mmol/mol). After adjustment for age, sex, race, education, smoking status, alcohol intake, knee pain, physical fitness, body mass index, diabetes mellitus medication and statin use, ancillary year visit, and study arm and site, higher HbA1c was associated with worse physical but not cognitive function. Further adjustment for prevalent diabetes mellitus–related comorbidities made all associations nonsignificant. Results did not differ when stratified according to participant baseline age (<60 vs ≥ 60). Conclusion: Results presented here suggest that, in the absence of diabetes mellitus–related complications, longitudinal glucose exposure is not associated with future cognitive and physical function. Optimal management of diabetes mellitus–related comorbidities may prevent or reduce the burden of disability associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)137-145
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the American Geriatrics Society
Volume65
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017

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Cognition
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Glucose
Health
Comorbidity
Knee
Trail Making Test
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors
Verbal Learning
Physical Fitness
Sex Education
Glycosylated Hemoglobin A
Hand Strength
Diabetes Complications
Physical Examination
Young Adult
Diabetes Mellitus
Body Mass Index
Arm
Cohort Studies

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology

Cite this

Effects of Longitudinal Glucose Exposure on Cognitive and Physical Function : Results from the Action for Health in Diabetes Movement and Memory Study. / the Action for Health in Diabetes Movement and Memory Ancillary Study Research Group.

In: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, Vol. 65, No. 1, 01.01.2017, p. 137-145.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

the Action for Health in Diabetes Movement and Memory Ancillary Study Research Group. / Effects of Longitudinal Glucose Exposure on Cognitive and Physical Function : Results from the Action for Health in Diabetes Movement and Memory Study. In: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2017 ; Vol. 65, No. 1. pp. 137-145.
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abstract = "Objectives: To test whether average long-term glucose exposure is associated with cognitive and physical function in middle-aged and younger-old adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Data obtained as part of the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial (NCT00017953) and Look AHEAD Movement and Memory ancillary study (NCT01410097). Participants: Overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus aged 45 to 76 at baseline (N = 879). Measurements: Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured at regular intervals over 7 years, and objective measures of cognitive function (Trail-Making Test, Modified Stroop Color-Word Test, Digit Symbol-Coding, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Modified Mini-Mental State Examination) and physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery, expanded Physical Performance Battery, 400-m and 20-m gait speed) and strength (grip and knee extensor strength) were assessed at the Year 8 or 9 follow-up examination. Results: Average HbA1c exposure was 7.0 ± 1.1{\%} (53 ± 11.6 mmol/mol), with 57{\%} of participants classified as having HbA1c levels of less than 7{\%} (<53 mmol/mol), 27{\%} having levels of 7{\%} to 8{\%} (53–64 mmol/mol), and 16{\%} having levels of greater than 8{\%} (>64 mmol/mol). After adjustment for age, sex, race, education, smoking status, alcohol intake, knee pain, physical fitness, body mass index, diabetes mellitus medication and statin use, ancillary year visit, and study arm and site, higher HbA1c was associated with worse physical but not cognitive function. Further adjustment for prevalent diabetes mellitus–related comorbidities made all associations nonsignificant. Results did not differ when stratified according to participant baseline age (<60 vs ≥ 60). Conclusion: Results presented here suggest that, in the absence of diabetes mellitus–related complications, longitudinal glucose exposure is not associated with future cognitive and physical function. Optimal management of diabetes mellitus–related comorbidities may prevent or reduce the burden of disability associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus.",
author = "{the Action for Health in Diabetes Movement and Memory Ancillary Study Research Group} and Beavers, {Kristen M.} and Iris Leng and Rapp, {Stephen R.} and Miller, {Michael E.} and Houston, {Denise K.} and Marsh, {Anthony P.} and Hire, {Don G.} and Baker, {Laura D.} and Bray, {George A.} and Blackburn, {George L.} and Hergenroeder, {Andrea L.} and Jakicic, {John M.} and Johnson, {Karen C.} and Korytkowski, {Mary T.} and Karen Johnson and Kritchevsky, {Stephen B.}",
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AU - Beavers, Kristen M.

AU - Leng, Iris

AU - Rapp, Stephen R.

AU - Miller, Michael E.

AU - Houston, Denise K.

AU - Marsh, Anthony P.

AU - Hire, Don G.

AU - Baker, Laura D.

AU - Bray, George A.

AU - Blackburn, George L.

AU - Hergenroeder, Andrea L.

AU - Jakicic, John M.

AU - Johnson, Karen C.

AU - Korytkowski, Mary T.

AU - Johnson, Karen

AU - Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

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N2 - Objectives: To test whether average long-term glucose exposure is associated with cognitive and physical function in middle-aged and younger-old adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Data obtained as part of the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial (NCT00017953) and Look AHEAD Movement and Memory ancillary study (NCT01410097). Participants: Overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus aged 45 to 76 at baseline (N = 879). Measurements: Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured at regular intervals over 7 years, and objective measures of cognitive function (Trail-Making Test, Modified Stroop Color-Word Test, Digit Symbol-Coding, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Modified Mini-Mental State Examination) and physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery, expanded Physical Performance Battery, 400-m and 20-m gait speed) and strength (grip and knee extensor strength) were assessed at the Year 8 or 9 follow-up examination. Results: Average HbA1c exposure was 7.0 ± 1.1% (53 ± 11.6 mmol/mol), with 57% of participants classified as having HbA1c levels of less than 7% (<53 mmol/mol), 27% having levels of 7% to 8% (53–64 mmol/mol), and 16% having levels of greater than 8% (>64 mmol/mol). After adjustment for age, sex, race, education, smoking status, alcohol intake, knee pain, physical fitness, body mass index, diabetes mellitus medication and statin use, ancillary year visit, and study arm and site, higher HbA1c was associated with worse physical but not cognitive function. Further adjustment for prevalent diabetes mellitus–related comorbidities made all associations nonsignificant. Results did not differ when stratified according to participant baseline age (<60 vs ≥ 60). Conclusion: Results presented here suggest that, in the absence of diabetes mellitus–related complications, longitudinal glucose exposure is not associated with future cognitive and physical function. Optimal management of diabetes mellitus–related comorbidities may prevent or reduce the burden of disability associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

AB - Objectives: To test whether average long-term glucose exposure is associated with cognitive and physical function in middle-aged and younger-old adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Data obtained as part of the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial (NCT00017953) and Look AHEAD Movement and Memory ancillary study (NCT01410097). Participants: Overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus aged 45 to 76 at baseline (N = 879). Measurements: Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured at regular intervals over 7 years, and objective measures of cognitive function (Trail-Making Test, Modified Stroop Color-Word Test, Digit Symbol-Coding, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Modified Mini-Mental State Examination) and physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery, expanded Physical Performance Battery, 400-m and 20-m gait speed) and strength (grip and knee extensor strength) were assessed at the Year 8 or 9 follow-up examination. Results: Average HbA1c exposure was 7.0 ± 1.1% (53 ± 11.6 mmol/mol), with 57% of participants classified as having HbA1c levels of less than 7% (<53 mmol/mol), 27% having levels of 7% to 8% (53–64 mmol/mol), and 16% having levels of greater than 8% (>64 mmol/mol). After adjustment for age, sex, race, education, smoking status, alcohol intake, knee pain, physical fitness, body mass index, diabetes mellitus medication and statin use, ancillary year visit, and study arm and site, higher HbA1c was associated with worse physical but not cognitive function. Further adjustment for prevalent diabetes mellitus–related comorbidities made all associations nonsignificant. Results did not differ when stratified according to participant baseline age (<60 vs ≥ 60). Conclusion: Results presented here suggest that, in the absence of diabetes mellitus–related complications, longitudinal glucose exposure is not associated with future cognitive and physical function. Optimal management of diabetes mellitus–related comorbidities may prevent or reduce the burden of disability associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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