Efficacy of ethanol against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus polymicrobial biofilms

Brian Peters, Raven M. Ward, Hallie S. Rane, Samuel A. Lee, Mairi C. Noverr

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

50 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungus, and Staphylococcus aureus, a bacterial pathogen, are two clinically relevant biofilm-forming microbes responsible for a majority of catheter-related infections, with such infections often resulting in catheter loss and removal. Not only do these pathogens cause a substantial number of nosocomial infections independently, but also they are frequently found coexisting as polymicrobial biofilms on host and environmental surfaces. Antimicrobial lock therapy is a current strategy to sterilize infected catheters. However, the robustness of this technique against polymicrobial biofilms has remained largely untested. Due to its antimicrobial activity, safety, stability, and affordability, we tested the hypothesis that ethanol (EtOH) could serve as a potentially efficacious catheter lock solution against C. albicans and S. aureus biofilms. Therefore, we optimized the dose and time necessary to achieve killing of both monomicrobial and polymicrobial biofilms formed on polystyrene and silicone surfaces in a static microplate lock therapy model. Treatment with 30% EtOH for a minimum of 4 h was inhibitory for monomicrobial and polymicrobial biofilms, as evidenced by XTT {sodium 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophe-nyl)-5-[(phenylamino)carbonyl] -2H-tetrazolium hydroxide inner salt} metabolic activity assays and confocal microscopy. Experiments to determine the regrowth of microorganisms on silicone after EtOH treatment were also performed. Importantly, incubation with 30% EtOH for 4 h was sufficient to kill and inhibit the growth of C. albicans, while 50% EtOH was needed to completely inhibit the regrowth of S. aureus. In summary, we have systematically defined the dose and duration of EtOH treatment that are effective against and prevent regrowth of C. albicans and S. aureus monomicrobial and polymicrobial biofilms in an in vitro lock therapy model.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)74-82
Number of pages9
JournalAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Volume57
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013

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Biofilms
Candida albicans
Staphylococcus aureus
Ethanol
Catheters
Silicones
Catheter-Related Infections
Polystyrenes
Cross Infection
Confocal Microscopy
Fungi
Therapeutics
Salts
Sodium
Safety
Growth
Infection

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Efficacy of ethanol against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus polymicrobial biofilms. / Peters, Brian; Ward, Raven M.; Rane, Hallie S.; Lee, Samuel A.; Noverr, Mairi C.

In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Vol. 57, No. 1, 01.01.2013, p. 74-82.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Peters, Brian ; Ward, Raven M. ; Rane, Hallie S. ; Lee, Samuel A. ; Noverr, Mairi C. / Efficacy of ethanol against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus polymicrobial biofilms. In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2013 ; Vol. 57, No. 1. pp. 74-82.
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