Evaluation of nursing adherence to a paper-based graduated continuous intravenous regular human insulin infusion algorithm

Roland Dickerson, Jessica L. Johnson, George O. Maish, Gayle Minard, Rex Brown

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: The use of continuous intravenous regular human insulin (RHI) infusion is often necessary to achieve glycemic control in critically ill patients. Because insulin is a high-risk medication owing to the potential for severe hypoglycemia, it is imperative that insulin infusion algorithms are designed to be safe, effective, and instructionally clear. The safety and efficacy of our intravenous RHI infusion algorithm protocol has been previously established (Nutrition 2008;24:536-45); however, the protocol violations by nursing personnel were not examined. The objective of this study was to assess nursing adherence to our RHI infusion algorithm. Methods: Continuous RHI infusion algorithm violations were retrospectively evaluated in adult patients admitted to a trauma intensive care unit who received concurrent continuous enteral and/or parenteral nutrition therapy and our algorithm for at least 3 d. Blood glucose (BG) monitoring was done every 1 to 2 h with the target BG at 70 to 149 mg/dL (3.9 to 8.3 mmol/L). Nursing adherence to the RHI infusion protocol was evaluated for each patient by comparing the adjustments in insulin infusion rates documented by the nursing personnel with the prescribed adjustments per our graduated continuous intravenous RHI infusion algorithm. Results: A total of 4150 BG measurements necessitating the determination of the appropriate RHI dosage rate by nursing personnel in 40 patients occurred during the observational period. The target BG was achieved for a mean of 20 h/d and none of the patients had an episode of severe hypoglycemia (BG <40 mg/dL or 2.2 mmol/L). The overall rate of algorithm violations was 12.1%. The algorithm violations accounted for a single episode of mild to moderate hypoglycemia (BG 40 to 60 mg/dL or 2.2 to 3.3 mmol/L) in 4 patients and 65 total episodes of hyperglycemia (BG ≥150 mg/dL or 8.3 mmol/L) in 18 patients. Conclusion: An adherence rate of nearly 90% is indicative of excellent nursing adherence compared with other published paper-based algorithms that examined protocol adherence. These data, combined with our previously published glycemic control data, indicate that this RHI infusion algorithm is an effective one for hyperglycemic trauma patients receiving continuous enteral and/or parenteral nutritional therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1008-1011
Number of pages4
JournalNutrition
Volume28
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2012

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Insulin, Regular, Human
Nursing
Blood Glucose
Hypoglycemia
Nurses
Insulin
Nutrition Therapy
Parenteral Nutrition
Wounds and Injuries
Enteral Nutrition
Critical Illness
Hyperglycemia
Small Intestine
Intensive Care Units

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Evaluation of nursing adherence to a paper-based graduated continuous intravenous regular human insulin infusion algorithm. / Dickerson, Roland; Johnson, Jessica L.; Maish, George O.; Minard, Gayle; Brown, Rex.

In: Nutrition, Vol. 28, No. 10, 01.10.2012, p. 1008-1011.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dickerson, Roland ; Johnson, Jessica L. ; Maish, George O. ; Minard, Gayle ; Brown, Rex. / Evaluation of nursing adherence to a paper-based graduated continuous intravenous regular human insulin infusion algorithm. In: Nutrition. 2012 ; Vol. 28, No. 10. pp. 1008-1011.
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abstract = "Objective: The use of continuous intravenous regular human insulin (RHI) infusion is often necessary to achieve glycemic control in critically ill patients. Because insulin is a high-risk medication owing to the potential for severe hypoglycemia, it is imperative that insulin infusion algorithms are designed to be safe, effective, and instructionally clear. The safety and efficacy of our intravenous RHI infusion algorithm protocol has been previously established (Nutrition 2008;24:536-45); however, the protocol violations by nursing personnel were not examined. The objective of this study was to assess nursing adherence to our RHI infusion algorithm. Methods: Continuous RHI infusion algorithm violations were retrospectively evaluated in adult patients admitted to a trauma intensive care unit who received concurrent continuous enteral and/or parenteral nutrition therapy and our algorithm for at least 3 d. Blood glucose (BG) monitoring was done every 1 to 2 h with the target BG at 70 to 149 mg/dL (3.9 to 8.3 mmol/L). Nursing adherence to the RHI infusion protocol was evaluated for each patient by comparing the adjustments in insulin infusion rates documented by the nursing personnel with the prescribed adjustments per our graduated continuous intravenous RHI infusion algorithm. Results: A total of 4150 BG measurements necessitating the determination of the appropriate RHI dosage rate by nursing personnel in 40 patients occurred during the observational period. The target BG was achieved for a mean of 20 h/d and none of the patients had an episode of severe hypoglycemia (BG <40 mg/dL or 2.2 mmol/L). The overall rate of algorithm violations was 12.1{\%}. The algorithm violations accounted for a single episode of mild to moderate hypoglycemia (BG 40 to 60 mg/dL or 2.2 to 3.3 mmol/L) in 4 patients and 65 total episodes of hyperglycemia (BG ≥150 mg/dL or 8.3 mmol/L) in 18 patients. Conclusion: An adherence rate of nearly 90{\%} is indicative of excellent nursing adherence compared with other published paper-based algorithms that examined protocol adherence. These data, combined with our previously published glycemic control data, indicate that this RHI infusion algorithm is an effective one for hyperglycemic trauma patients receiving continuous enteral and/or parenteral nutritional therapy.",
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N2 - Objective: The use of continuous intravenous regular human insulin (RHI) infusion is often necessary to achieve glycemic control in critically ill patients. Because insulin is a high-risk medication owing to the potential for severe hypoglycemia, it is imperative that insulin infusion algorithms are designed to be safe, effective, and instructionally clear. The safety and efficacy of our intravenous RHI infusion algorithm protocol has been previously established (Nutrition 2008;24:536-45); however, the protocol violations by nursing personnel were not examined. The objective of this study was to assess nursing adherence to our RHI infusion algorithm. Methods: Continuous RHI infusion algorithm violations were retrospectively evaluated in adult patients admitted to a trauma intensive care unit who received concurrent continuous enteral and/or parenteral nutrition therapy and our algorithm for at least 3 d. Blood glucose (BG) monitoring was done every 1 to 2 h with the target BG at 70 to 149 mg/dL (3.9 to 8.3 mmol/L). Nursing adherence to the RHI infusion protocol was evaluated for each patient by comparing the adjustments in insulin infusion rates documented by the nursing personnel with the prescribed adjustments per our graduated continuous intravenous RHI infusion algorithm. Results: A total of 4150 BG measurements necessitating the determination of the appropriate RHI dosage rate by nursing personnel in 40 patients occurred during the observational period. The target BG was achieved for a mean of 20 h/d and none of the patients had an episode of severe hypoglycemia (BG <40 mg/dL or 2.2 mmol/L). The overall rate of algorithm violations was 12.1%. The algorithm violations accounted for a single episode of mild to moderate hypoglycemia (BG 40 to 60 mg/dL or 2.2 to 3.3 mmol/L) in 4 patients and 65 total episodes of hyperglycemia (BG ≥150 mg/dL or 8.3 mmol/L) in 18 patients. Conclusion: An adherence rate of nearly 90% is indicative of excellent nursing adherence compared with other published paper-based algorithms that examined protocol adherence. These data, combined with our previously published glycemic control data, indicate that this RHI infusion algorithm is an effective one for hyperglycemic trauma patients receiving continuous enteral and/or parenteral nutritional therapy.

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