Evaluation of racial and socioeconomic disparities in medication pricing and pharmacy access and services

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Abstract

Purpose. Results of a study to determine if disparities in drug pricing, pharmacy services, and community pharmacy access exist in a Tennessee county with a predominantly minority population are reported. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of community pharmacies in Shelby County, a jurisdiction with a total population more than 60% composed of racial and ethnic minority groups, was conducted. Data collection included "out-of-pocket" (i.e., cash purchase) prices for generic levothyroxine, methylphenidate, and hydrocodone-acetaminophen; pharmacy hours of operation; availability of selected pharmacy services; and ZIP code-level data on demographics and crime risk. Analysis of variance, chi-square testing, correlational analysis, and data mapping were performed. Results. Survey data were obtained from 90 pharmacies in 25 of the county's 33 residential ZIP code areas. Areas with fewer pharmacies per 10,000 residents tended to have a higher percentage of minority residents (p = 0.031). Methylphenidate pricing was typically lower in areas with lower employment rates (p = 0.027). Availability of home medication delivery service correlated with income level (p = 0.015), employment rate (p = 0.022), and crime risk (p = 0.014). Conclusion. A survey of community pharmacies in Shelby County, Tennessee, found that areas with a high percentage of minority residents had lower pharmacy density than areas with a high percentage of white residents. Pharmacies located in communities with low average income levels, low employment rates, and high scores for personal crime risk were less likely to offer home medication delivery services.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)653-668
Number of pages16
JournalAmerican Journal of Health-System Pharmacy
Volume74
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - May 15 2017

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Pharmaceutical Services
Pharmacies
Community Pharmacy Services
Costs and Cost Analysis
Crime
Methylphenidate
Minority Groups
Thyroxine
Ethnic Groups
Population
Analysis of Variance
Cross-Sectional Studies
Demography
Pharmaceutical Preparations

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmacology
  • Health Policy

Cite this

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title = "Evaluation of racial and socioeconomic disparities in medication pricing and pharmacy access and services",
abstract = "Purpose. Results of a study to determine if disparities in drug pricing, pharmacy services, and community pharmacy access exist in a Tennessee county with a predominantly minority population are reported. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of community pharmacies in Shelby County, a jurisdiction with a total population more than 60{\%} composed of racial and ethnic minority groups, was conducted. Data collection included {"}out-of-pocket{"} (i.e., cash purchase) prices for generic levothyroxine, methylphenidate, and hydrocodone-acetaminophen; pharmacy hours of operation; availability of selected pharmacy services; and ZIP code-level data on demographics and crime risk. Analysis of variance, chi-square testing, correlational analysis, and data mapping were performed. Results. Survey data were obtained from 90 pharmacies in 25 of the county's 33 residential ZIP code areas. Areas with fewer pharmacies per 10,000 residents tended to have a higher percentage of minority residents (p = 0.031). Methylphenidate pricing was typically lower in areas with lower employment rates (p = 0.027). Availability of home medication delivery service correlated with income level (p = 0.015), employment rate (p = 0.022), and crime risk (p = 0.014). Conclusion. A survey of community pharmacies in Shelby County, Tennessee, found that areas with a high percentage of minority residents had lower pharmacy density than areas with a high percentage of white residents. Pharmacies located in communities with low average income levels, low employment rates, and high scores for personal crime risk were less likely to offer home medication delivery services.",
author = "Marie Chisholm-Burns and Christina Spivey and Justin Gatwood and Adam Wiss and Kenneth Hohmeier and Erickson, {Steven R.}",
year = "2017",
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AU - Chisholm-Burns, Marie

AU - Spivey, Christina

AU - Gatwood, Justin

AU - Wiss, Adam

AU - Hohmeier, Kenneth

AU - Erickson, Steven R.

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N2 - Purpose. Results of a study to determine if disparities in drug pricing, pharmacy services, and community pharmacy access exist in a Tennessee county with a predominantly minority population are reported. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of community pharmacies in Shelby County, a jurisdiction with a total population more than 60% composed of racial and ethnic minority groups, was conducted. Data collection included "out-of-pocket" (i.e., cash purchase) prices for generic levothyroxine, methylphenidate, and hydrocodone-acetaminophen; pharmacy hours of operation; availability of selected pharmacy services; and ZIP code-level data on demographics and crime risk. Analysis of variance, chi-square testing, correlational analysis, and data mapping were performed. Results. Survey data were obtained from 90 pharmacies in 25 of the county's 33 residential ZIP code areas. Areas with fewer pharmacies per 10,000 residents tended to have a higher percentage of minority residents (p = 0.031). Methylphenidate pricing was typically lower in areas with lower employment rates (p = 0.027). Availability of home medication delivery service correlated with income level (p = 0.015), employment rate (p = 0.022), and crime risk (p = 0.014). Conclusion. A survey of community pharmacies in Shelby County, Tennessee, found that areas with a high percentage of minority residents had lower pharmacy density than areas with a high percentage of white residents. Pharmacies located in communities with low average income levels, low employment rates, and high scores for personal crime risk were less likely to offer home medication delivery services.

AB - Purpose. Results of a study to determine if disparities in drug pricing, pharmacy services, and community pharmacy access exist in a Tennessee county with a predominantly minority population are reported. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of community pharmacies in Shelby County, a jurisdiction with a total population more than 60% composed of racial and ethnic minority groups, was conducted. Data collection included "out-of-pocket" (i.e., cash purchase) prices for generic levothyroxine, methylphenidate, and hydrocodone-acetaminophen; pharmacy hours of operation; availability of selected pharmacy services; and ZIP code-level data on demographics and crime risk. Analysis of variance, chi-square testing, correlational analysis, and data mapping were performed. Results. Survey data were obtained from 90 pharmacies in 25 of the county's 33 residential ZIP code areas. Areas with fewer pharmacies per 10,000 residents tended to have a higher percentage of minority residents (p = 0.031). Methylphenidate pricing was typically lower in areas with lower employment rates (p = 0.027). Availability of home medication delivery service correlated with income level (p = 0.015), employment rate (p = 0.022), and crime risk (p = 0.014). Conclusion. A survey of community pharmacies in Shelby County, Tennessee, found that areas with a high percentage of minority residents had lower pharmacy density than areas with a high percentage of white residents. Pharmacies located in communities with low average income levels, low employment rates, and high scores for personal crime risk were less likely to offer home medication delivery services.

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