Evaluation of recent New Vaccine Surveillance Network data regarding respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization rates in US preterm infants

John Devincenzo, Christopher S. Ambrose, Doris Makari, Leonard B. Weiner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

In July 2014, the Committee on Infectious Diseases (COID) updated their guidance on the use of palivizumab, recommending against use in preterm infants 29 to 35 weeks' gestational age (wGA). A primary data source cited to support this significant change was the low respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalization rate observed in the subpopulation of preterm (<37 wGA) infants evaluated from 2000 to 2005 through the New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN). Here we critically appraise the preterm infant data from the NVSN in the context of data regarding the use of palivizumab in this same time period. Data from the NVSN, an analysis of Florida Medicaid data, and a national survey of US in-hospital palivizumab administration demonstrated that during 2001 to 2007, palivizumab was administered to 59% to 83% of preterm infants born at <32 wGA and 21% to 27% of all preterm infants (<37 wGA). When the NVSN data regarding incidence of RSV hospitalization in preterm infant subgroups were evaluated as a function of chronologic age, preterm infants <32 wGA showed a paradoxical increase in RSV hospitalization with older age, with the highest risk of RSV hospitalization occurring at 18 to 23 months of age. This pattern is most consistent with a reduction in RSV hospitalizations in <32 wGA infants in the first 12 to 18 months of life due to high palivizumab use at these young ages. The NVSN data were not designed to and cannot accurately describe RSV disease burden in preterm infants given the small size of the analyzed subpopulation and the high use of palivizumab during the study period.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)971-975
Number of pages5
JournalHuman Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics
Volume12
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2 2016

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Respiratory Syncytial Viruses
Premature Infants
Hospitalization
Vaccines
Hospital Administration
Information Storage and Retrieval
Medicaid
Virus Diseases
Gestational Age
Communicable Diseases
Palivizumab
Incidence

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology

Cite this

Evaluation of recent New Vaccine Surveillance Network data regarding respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization rates in US preterm infants. / Devincenzo, John; Ambrose, Christopher S.; Makari, Doris; Weiner, Leonard B.

In: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Vol. 12, No. 4, 02.04.2016, p. 971-975.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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