Evidence-based management of hyperglycemic emergencies in diabetes mellitus

Ebenezer Nyenwe, Abbas E. Kitabchi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

55 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The hyperglycemic emergencies, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) are potentially fatal complications of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. The incidence of DKA and the economic burden of its treatment continue to rise, but its associated mortality rate which was uniformly high has diminished remarkably over the years. This Improvement in outcome is largely due to better understanding of the pathogenesis of hyperglycemic emergencies and the application of evidence-based guidelines in the treatment of patients. In this article, we present a critical review of the evidence behind the recommendations that have resulted in the improved prognosis of patients with hyperglycemic crises. A succinct discussion of the pathophysiology and important etiological factors in DKA and HHS are provided as a prerequisite for understanding the rationale for the effective therapeutic maneuvers employed in these acute severe metabolic conditions. The evidence for the role of preventive measures in DKA and HHS is also discussed. The unanswered questions and future research needs are also highlighted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)340-351
Number of pages12
JournalDiabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Volume94
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2011

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Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Coma
Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Diabetes Mellitus
Emergencies
Diabetes Complications
Therapeutics
Economics
Guidelines
Mortality
Incidence

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology

Cite this

Evidence-based management of hyperglycemic emergencies in diabetes mellitus. / Nyenwe, Ebenezer; Kitabchi, Abbas E.

In: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, Vol. 94, No. 3, 01.12.2011, p. 340-351.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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