Evidence for a possible avian dorsal thalamic region comparable to the mammalian ventral anterior, ventral lateral, and oral ventroposterolateral nuclei

Loreta Medina, C. Leo Veenman, Anton Reiner

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Abstract

In the present study, we investigated whether a dorsal thalamic region comparable to the motor part of the mammalian ventral tier (the ventral anterior nucleus, the ventral lateral nucleus, and the oral ventroposterolateral nucleus) exists in pigeon. With this aim, we reinvestigated the projections of the pigeon dorsal pallidum to the dorsal thalamus by using 1) injections of the anterogradely transported form of biotinylated dextran amine (BDA; 10,000 molecular weight) in the pigeon dorsal pallidum (paleostriatum primitivum) and 2) injections of the retrogradely transported form of BDA (3,000 molecular weight) in the pigeon dorsal thalamus. Our results indicate that the dorsal pallidum in pigeons projects to three areas of the dorsal thalamus: the dorsointermediate posterior nucleus, the ventrointermediate area, and the nucleus subrotundus. Only the projection to the dorsointermediate posterior nucleus was described previously (Karten and Dubbeldam [1973] J. Comp. Neurol. 148:61-90; Kitt and Brauth [1982] Neuroscience 6:1551-1566). To investigate whether any of the dorsal thalamic nuclei receiving pallidal input project to a motor cortical field, injections of the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold were placed into the rostral Wulst. This is an avian cortical field that appears to contain a region comparable to mammalian primary somatomotor cortex (Karten [1971] Anat. Rec. 169:353; Wild [1992] J. Comp. Neurol. 287:1-18). Our results indicate that neurons in the rostral ventrointermediate area, but not in the nucleus subrotundus, the dorsointermediate posterior nucleus, or the intermediate or caudal parts of the ventrointermediate area, project to the rostral Wulst. In addition to the input from the dorsal pallidum, the avian ventrointermediate area also receives input from the lateral substantia nigra and the lateral and internal cerebellar nuclei (present results). Our results suggest the existence in birds of a pallidothalamocortical loop similar to the pallidoventral tier-motor cortex loop of mammals and suggest that the avian ventrointermediate area is comparable to the motor part of the mammalian ventral tier in both location and connections. If this is confirmed by physiological experiments, then it would indicate that basal ganglia control of movement mediated by a pallidothalamocortical loop may have evolved with the stem reptiles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)86-108
Number of pages23
JournalJournal of Comparative Neurology
Volume384
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 21 1997

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Globus Pallidus
Columbidae
Ventral Thalamic Nuclei
Thalamus
Injections
Posterior Thalamic Nuclei
Molecular Weight
Cerebellar Nuclei
Thalamic Nuclei
Reptiles
Motor Cortex
Substantia Nigra
Neurosciences
Basal Ganglia
Birds
Mammals
Neurons

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

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title = "Evidence for a possible avian dorsal thalamic region comparable to the mammalian ventral anterior, ventral lateral, and oral ventroposterolateral nuclei",
abstract = "In the present study, we investigated whether a dorsal thalamic region comparable to the motor part of the mammalian ventral tier (the ventral anterior nucleus, the ventral lateral nucleus, and the oral ventroposterolateral nucleus) exists in pigeon. With this aim, we reinvestigated the projections of the pigeon dorsal pallidum to the dorsal thalamus by using 1) injections of the anterogradely transported form of biotinylated dextran amine (BDA; 10,000 molecular weight) in the pigeon dorsal pallidum (paleostriatum primitivum) and 2) injections of the retrogradely transported form of BDA (3,000 molecular weight) in the pigeon dorsal thalamus. Our results indicate that the dorsal pallidum in pigeons projects to three areas of the dorsal thalamus: the dorsointermediate posterior nucleus, the ventrointermediate area, and the nucleus subrotundus. Only the projection to the dorsointermediate posterior nucleus was described previously (Karten and Dubbeldam [1973] J. Comp. Neurol. 148:61-90; Kitt and Brauth [1982] Neuroscience 6:1551-1566). To investigate whether any of the dorsal thalamic nuclei receiving pallidal input project to a motor cortical field, injections of the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold were placed into the rostral Wulst. This is an avian cortical field that appears to contain a region comparable to mammalian primary somatomotor cortex (Karten [1971] Anat. Rec. 169:353; Wild [1992] J. Comp. Neurol. 287:1-18). Our results indicate that neurons in the rostral ventrointermediate area, but not in the nucleus subrotundus, the dorsointermediate posterior nucleus, or the intermediate or caudal parts of the ventrointermediate area, project to the rostral Wulst. In addition to the input from the dorsal pallidum, the avian ventrointermediate area also receives input from the lateral substantia nigra and the lateral and internal cerebellar nuclei (present results). Our results suggest the existence in birds of a pallidothalamocortical loop similar to the pallidoventral tier-motor cortex loop of mammals and suggest that the avian ventrointermediate area is comparable to the motor part of the mammalian ventral tier in both location and connections. If this is confirmed by physiological experiments, then it would indicate that basal ganglia control of movement mediated by a pallidothalamocortical loop may have evolved with the stem reptiles.",
author = "Loreta Medina and Veenman, {C. Leo} and Anton Reiner",
year = "1997",
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AU - Medina, Loreta

AU - Veenman, C. Leo

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N2 - In the present study, we investigated whether a dorsal thalamic region comparable to the motor part of the mammalian ventral tier (the ventral anterior nucleus, the ventral lateral nucleus, and the oral ventroposterolateral nucleus) exists in pigeon. With this aim, we reinvestigated the projections of the pigeon dorsal pallidum to the dorsal thalamus by using 1) injections of the anterogradely transported form of biotinylated dextran amine (BDA; 10,000 molecular weight) in the pigeon dorsal pallidum (paleostriatum primitivum) and 2) injections of the retrogradely transported form of BDA (3,000 molecular weight) in the pigeon dorsal thalamus. Our results indicate that the dorsal pallidum in pigeons projects to three areas of the dorsal thalamus: the dorsointermediate posterior nucleus, the ventrointermediate area, and the nucleus subrotundus. Only the projection to the dorsointermediate posterior nucleus was described previously (Karten and Dubbeldam [1973] J. Comp. Neurol. 148:61-90; Kitt and Brauth [1982] Neuroscience 6:1551-1566). To investigate whether any of the dorsal thalamic nuclei receiving pallidal input project to a motor cortical field, injections of the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold were placed into the rostral Wulst. This is an avian cortical field that appears to contain a region comparable to mammalian primary somatomotor cortex (Karten [1971] Anat. Rec. 169:353; Wild [1992] J. Comp. Neurol. 287:1-18). Our results indicate that neurons in the rostral ventrointermediate area, but not in the nucleus subrotundus, the dorsointermediate posterior nucleus, or the intermediate or caudal parts of the ventrointermediate area, project to the rostral Wulst. In addition to the input from the dorsal pallidum, the avian ventrointermediate area also receives input from the lateral substantia nigra and the lateral and internal cerebellar nuclei (present results). Our results suggest the existence in birds of a pallidothalamocortical loop similar to the pallidoventral tier-motor cortex loop of mammals and suggest that the avian ventrointermediate area is comparable to the motor part of the mammalian ventral tier in both location and connections. If this is confirmed by physiological experiments, then it would indicate that basal ganglia control of movement mediated by a pallidothalamocortical loop may have evolved with the stem reptiles.

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