Examining Associations of Circulating Endotoxin With Nutritional Status, Inflammation, and Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients

Usama Feroze, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Kevin A. Sterling, Miklos Z. Molnar, Nazanin Noori, Debbie Benner, Vallabh Shah, Rama Dwivedi, Kenneth Becker, Csaba Kovesdy, Dominic S. Raj

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Objective: Lipopolysaccharide or endotoxin constitutes most part of the outer portion of the cell wall in the gram-negative bacteria. Subclinical endotoxemia could contribute to increased inflammation and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Endotoxin level and clinical effect are determined by its soluble receptor sCD14 and high-density lipoprotein. We examine the hypothesis that endotoxin level correlates with mortality. Methods: In this cohort study, endotoxin levels were measured in 306 long-term HD patients who were then followed up for a maximum of 42 months. Soluble CD14 and cytokines levels were also measured. Results: The mean (±SD) endotoxin level was 2.31 ± 3.10 EU/mL (minimum: 0.26 EU/mL, maximum: 22.94 EU/mL, interquartile range: 1.33 EU/mL, median: 1.27 EU/mL). Endotoxin correlated with C-reactive protein (. r = 0.11, . P < .04). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, high body mass index and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels were associated with higher endotoxemia (endotoxin below or above of median). In multivariate Cox regression analysis adjusted for case-mix and nutritional/inflammatory confounders, endotoxin levels in the third quartile versus first quartile were associated with a trend toward increased hazard ratio for death (hazard ratio: 1.83, 95% confidence interval: 0.93 to 3.6, . P = .08). Conclusions: In this HD cohort, we found associations between endotoxemia and C-reactive protein, body composition, and HDL. Moderately high endotoxin levels tended to correlate with increased mortality than the highest circulating endotoxin level. Additional studies are required to assess the effect of endotoxemia on mortality in dialysis population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)317-326
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Renal Nutrition
Volume22
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2012
Externally publishedYes

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Nutritional Status
Endotoxins
Renal Dialysis
Inflammation
Mortality
Endotoxemia
C-Reactive Protein
Regression Analysis
Diagnosis-Related Groups
HDL Lipoproteins
Body Composition
Gram-Negative Bacteria
LDL Cholesterol
Cell Wall
HDL Cholesterol
Lipopolysaccharides
Dialysis
Body Mass Index
Cohort Studies
Logistic Models

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Nephrology

Cite this

Feroze, U., Kalantar-Zadeh, K., Sterling, K. A., Molnar, M. Z., Noori, N., Benner, D., ... Raj, D. S. (2012). Examining Associations of Circulating Endotoxin With Nutritional Status, Inflammation, and Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients. Journal of Renal Nutrition, 22(3), 317-326. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.jrn.2011.05.004

Examining Associations of Circulating Endotoxin With Nutritional Status, Inflammation, and Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients. / Feroze, Usama; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Sterling, Kevin A.; Molnar, Miklos Z.; Noori, Nazanin; Benner, Debbie; Shah, Vallabh; Dwivedi, Rama; Becker, Kenneth; Kovesdy, Csaba; Raj, Dominic S.

In: Journal of Renal Nutrition, Vol. 22, No. 3, 01.05.2012, p. 317-326.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Feroze, U, Kalantar-Zadeh, K, Sterling, KA, Molnar, MZ, Noori, N, Benner, D, Shah, V, Dwivedi, R, Becker, K, Kovesdy, C & Raj, DS 2012, 'Examining Associations of Circulating Endotoxin With Nutritional Status, Inflammation, and Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients', Journal of Renal Nutrition, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 317-326. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.jrn.2011.05.004
Feroze, Usama ; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar ; Sterling, Kevin A. ; Molnar, Miklos Z. ; Noori, Nazanin ; Benner, Debbie ; Shah, Vallabh ; Dwivedi, Rama ; Becker, Kenneth ; Kovesdy, Csaba ; Raj, Dominic S. / Examining Associations of Circulating Endotoxin With Nutritional Status, Inflammation, and Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients. In: Journal of Renal Nutrition. 2012 ; Vol. 22, No. 3. pp. 317-326.
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AU - Feroze, Usama

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AU - Sterling, Kevin A.

AU - Molnar, Miklos Z.

AU - Noori, Nazanin

AU - Benner, Debbie

AU - Shah, Vallabh

AU - Dwivedi, Rama

AU - Becker, Kenneth

AU - Kovesdy, Csaba

AU - Raj, Dominic S.

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