Exposure to electronic cigarettes impairs pulmonary anti-bacterial and anti-viral defenses in a mouse model

Thomas E. Sussan, Sachin Gajghate, Rajesh K. Thimmulappa, Jinfang Ma, Jung Hyun Kim, Kuladeep Sudini, Nicola Consolini, Stephania Cormier, Slawo Lomnicki, Farhana Hasan, Andrew Pekosz, Shyam Biswal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

116 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Electronic cigarettes (E-cigs) have experienced sharp increases in popularity over the past five years due to many factors, including aggressive marketing, increased restrictions on conventional cigarettes, and a perception that E-cigs are healthy alternatives to cigarettes. Despite this perception, studies on health effects in humans are extremely limited and in vivo animal models have not been generated. Presently, we determined that E-cig vapor contains 7x1011 free radicals per puff. To determine whether E-cig exposure impacts pulmonary responses in mice, we developed an inhalation chamber for E-cig exposure. Mice that were exposed to E-cig vapor contained serum cotinine concentrations that are comparable to human E-cig users. E-cig exposure for 2 weeks produced a significant increase in oxidative stress and moderate macrophage-mediated inflammation. Since, COPD patients are susceptible to bacterial and viral infections, we tested effects of E-cigs on immune response. Mice that were exposed to E-cig vapor showed significantly impaired pulmonary bacterial clearance, compared to air-exposed mice, following an intranasal infection with Streptococcus pneumonia. This defective bacterial clearance was partially due to reduced phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages from E-cig exposed mice. In response to Influenza A virus infection, E-cig exposed mice displayed increased lung viral titers and enhanced virus-induced illness and mortality. In summary, this study reports a murine model of E-cig exposure and demonstrates that E-cig exposure elicits impaired pulmonary anti-microbial defenses. Hence, E-cig exposure as an alternative to cigarette smoking must be rigorously tested in users for their effects on immune response and susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number0116861
JournalPloS one
Volume10
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 4 2015

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cigarettes
Tobacco Products
electronics
animal models
lungs
Lung
Virus Diseases
mice
vapors
Electronic Cigarettes
Bacterial Infections
Vapors
infection
Viruses
macrophages
Pneumococcal Infections
Cotinine
immune response
Influenza A virus
Alveolar Macrophages

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

Sussan, T. E., Gajghate, S., Thimmulappa, R. K., Ma, J., Kim, J. H., Sudini, K., ... Biswal, S. (2015). Exposure to electronic cigarettes impairs pulmonary anti-bacterial and anti-viral defenses in a mouse model. PloS one, 10(2), [0116861]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116861

Exposure to electronic cigarettes impairs pulmonary anti-bacterial and anti-viral defenses in a mouse model. / Sussan, Thomas E.; Gajghate, Sachin; Thimmulappa, Rajesh K.; Ma, Jinfang; Kim, Jung Hyun; Sudini, Kuladeep; Consolini, Nicola; Cormier, Stephania; Lomnicki, Slawo; Hasan, Farhana; Pekosz, Andrew; Biswal, Shyam.

In: PloS one, Vol. 10, No. 2, 0116861, 04.02.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sussan, TE, Gajghate, S, Thimmulappa, RK, Ma, J, Kim, JH, Sudini, K, Consolini, N, Cormier, S, Lomnicki, S, Hasan, F, Pekosz, A & Biswal, S 2015, 'Exposure to electronic cigarettes impairs pulmonary anti-bacterial and anti-viral defenses in a mouse model', PloS one, vol. 10, no. 2, 0116861. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116861
Sussan, Thomas E. ; Gajghate, Sachin ; Thimmulappa, Rajesh K. ; Ma, Jinfang ; Kim, Jung Hyun ; Sudini, Kuladeep ; Consolini, Nicola ; Cormier, Stephania ; Lomnicki, Slawo ; Hasan, Farhana ; Pekosz, Andrew ; Biswal, Shyam. / Exposure to electronic cigarettes impairs pulmonary anti-bacterial and anti-viral defenses in a mouse model. In: PloS one. 2015 ; Vol. 10, No. 2.
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