Factors associated with blood pressure response to the cold pressor test

The GenSalt study

Mingzhi Zhang, Qi Zhao, Katherine T. Mills, Jichun Chen, Jianxin Li, Jie Cao, Dongfeng Gu, Jiang He

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUNDBlood pressure (BP) response to the cold pressor test (CPT) has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We studied risk factors associated with BP response to CPT.METHODSWe conducted the CPT among 2,682 individuals in rural north China. BP was measured using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer prior to and at 0, 1, 2, and 4 minutes after the participants immersed their right hand in ice water for 1 minute.RESULTSSex, age, and baseline BP levels were significantly associated with BP response to the CPT. For example, maximum systolic BP response (mean ± SD) was greater in women than in men (15.5±10.7 vs. 13.8±10.0mm Hg; P < 0.0001), correspondingly higher with age (12.4±8.7, 13.8±10.0, and 16.4±11.2mm Hg for those aged < 35, 35-44, and ≥ 45 years, respectively; P for trend < 0.0001), and greater with higher BP (13.5±10.0, 14.9±10.2, and 17.4±11.5mm Hg for those with baseline BP < 120/80, 120-139/80-89, and ≥ 140/90mm Hg, respectively; P for trend < 0.0001). In multivariable analyses, we also observed that higher body mass index, physical inactivity, and alcohol consumption were significantly associated with greater BP response to the CPT.CONCLUSIONSOur study indicates that females, older age, and elevated baseline BP levels are associated with greater BP response to the CPT. In addition, physical inactivity, higher weight, and alcohol consumption may also be related to BP hyperreactivity to stress.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1132-1139
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican journal of hypertension
Volume26
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2013

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Blood Pressure
Pressure
Alcohol Drinking
Sphygmomanometers
Ice
Mercury
China
Body Mass Index
Cardiovascular Diseases
Hand
Weights and Measures
Water

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Internal Medicine

Cite this

Factors associated with blood pressure response to the cold pressor test : The GenSalt study. / Zhang, Mingzhi; Zhao, Qi; Mills, Katherine T.; Chen, Jichun; Li, Jianxin; Cao, Jie; Gu, Dongfeng; He, Jiang.

In: American journal of hypertension, Vol. 26, No. 9, 01.09.2013, p. 1132-1139.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Zhang, Mingzhi ; Zhao, Qi ; Mills, Katherine T. ; Chen, Jichun ; Li, Jianxin ; Cao, Jie ; Gu, Dongfeng ; He, Jiang. / Factors associated with blood pressure response to the cold pressor test : The GenSalt study. In: American journal of hypertension. 2013 ; Vol. 26, No. 9. pp. 1132-1139.
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AU - Cao, Jie

AU - Gu, Dongfeng

AU - He, Jiang

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N2 - BACKGROUNDBlood pressure (BP) response to the cold pressor test (CPT) has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We studied risk factors associated with BP response to CPT.METHODSWe conducted the CPT among 2,682 individuals in rural north China. BP was measured using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer prior to and at 0, 1, 2, and 4 minutes after the participants immersed their right hand in ice water for 1 minute.RESULTSSex, age, and baseline BP levels were significantly associated with BP response to the CPT. For example, maximum systolic BP response (mean ± SD) was greater in women than in men (15.5±10.7 vs. 13.8±10.0mm Hg; P < 0.0001), correspondingly higher with age (12.4±8.7, 13.8±10.0, and 16.4±11.2mm Hg for those aged < 35, 35-44, and ≥ 45 years, respectively; P for trend < 0.0001), and greater with higher BP (13.5±10.0, 14.9±10.2, and 17.4±11.5mm Hg for those with baseline BP < 120/80, 120-139/80-89, and ≥ 140/90mm Hg, respectively; P for trend < 0.0001). In multivariable analyses, we also observed that higher body mass index, physical inactivity, and alcohol consumption were significantly associated with greater BP response to the CPT.CONCLUSIONSOur study indicates that females, older age, and elevated baseline BP levels are associated with greater BP response to the CPT. In addition, physical inactivity, higher weight, and alcohol consumption may also be related to BP hyperreactivity to stress.

AB - BACKGROUNDBlood pressure (BP) response to the cold pressor test (CPT) has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We studied risk factors associated with BP response to CPT.METHODSWe conducted the CPT among 2,682 individuals in rural north China. BP was measured using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer prior to and at 0, 1, 2, and 4 minutes after the participants immersed their right hand in ice water for 1 minute.RESULTSSex, age, and baseline BP levels were significantly associated with BP response to the CPT. For example, maximum systolic BP response (mean ± SD) was greater in women than in men (15.5±10.7 vs. 13.8±10.0mm Hg; P < 0.0001), correspondingly higher with age (12.4±8.7, 13.8±10.0, and 16.4±11.2mm Hg for those aged < 35, 35-44, and ≥ 45 years, respectively; P for trend < 0.0001), and greater with higher BP (13.5±10.0, 14.9±10.2, and 17.4±11.5mm Hg for those with baseline BP < 120/80, 120-139/80-89, and ≥ 140/90mm Hg, respectively; P for trend < 0.0001). In multivariable analyses, we also observed that higher body mass index, physical inactivity, and alcohol consumption were significantly associated with greater BP response to the CPT.CONCLUSIONSOur study indicates that females, older age, and elevated baseline BP levels are associated with greater BP response to the CPT. In addition, physical inactivity, higher weight, and alcohol consumption may also be related to BP hyperreactivity to stress.

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