Fluoride intake levels in relation to fluorosis development in permanent maxillary central incisors and first molars

Liang Hong, Steven M. Levy, John J. Warren, Barbara Broffitt, Joseph Cavanaugh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

51 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Gaps remain in our knowledge about the levels of fluoride intake that cause dental fluorosis. The purpose of this study was to report the fluorosis prevalence by levels of estimated fluoride intake in an effort to understand the importance of different levels of daily fluoride intake. As part of the longitudinal Iowa Fluoride Study, subjects were followed from birth to 36 months with questionnaires every 3-4 months to gather information on fluoride intake from various sources. Daily fluoride intake in mg per kg body weight (BW) was estimated from water, beverages and selected foods, fluoride supplements and dentifrice. Six hundred and twenty-eight subjects were examined for fluorosis on permanent incisors and first molars at about age 9 by two calibrated examiners using the Fluorosis Risk Index categories. Fluorosis prevalence rates were determined separately for maxillary central incisors and first molars by levels of estimated fluoride intake. There were significant positive associations between fluorosis prevalence and levels of fluoride intake. Cumulatively from birth to 36 months, average daily intake of 0.04 mg F/kg BW or less carried relatively low risk for fluorosis (12.9% for maxillary central incisors, 6.8% for first molars). Average daily intake of 0.04-0.06 mg F/kg BW showed a significantly elevated risk for fluorosis (23.0% for maxillary central incisors, 14.5% for first molars), while fluorosis risk was even higher for average intake above 0.06 mg F/kg BW (38.0% for maxillary central incisors, 32.4% for first molars). The study suggests that fluorosis prevalence is related to elevated fluoride intake when averaged over the first 3 years of life, but is even more strongly related to fluoride intake that is elevated for all of the first 3 years of life.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)494-500
Number of pages7
JournalCaries Research
Volume40
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2006
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Incisor
Fluorides
Body Weight
Dental Fluorosis
Parturition
Dentifrices
Beverages
Dietary Supplements
Water

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Dentistry(all)

Cite this

Fluoride intake levels in relation to fluorosis development in permanent maxillary central incisors and first molars. / Hong, Liang; Levy, Steven M.; Warren, John J.; Broffitt, Barbara; Cavanaugh, Joseph.

In: Caries Research, Vol. 40, No. 6, 01.10.2006, p. 494-500.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hong, Liang ; Levy, Steven M. ; Warren, John J. ; Broffitt, Barbara ; Cavanaugh, Joseph. / Fluoride intake levels in relation to fluorosis development in permanent maxillary central incisors and first molars. In: Caries Research. 2006 ; Vol. 40, No. 6. pp. 494-500.
@article{3fd114351d7d4b8f8f0bce658532e3a8,
title = "Fluoride intake levels in relation to fluorosis development in permanent maxillary central incisors and first molars",
abstract = "Gaps remain in our knowledge about the levels of fluoride intake that cause dental fluorosis. The purpose of this study was to report the fluorosis prevalence by levels of estimated fluoride intake in an effort to understand the importance of different levels of daily fluoride intake. As part of the longitudinal Iowa Fluoride Study, subjects were followed from birth to 36 months with questionnaires every 3-4 months to gather information on fluoride intake from various sources. Daily fluoride intake in mg per kg body weight (BW) was estimated from water, beverages and selected foods, fluoride supplements and dentifrice. Six hundred and twenty-eight subjects were examined for fluorosis on permanent incisors and first molars at about age 9 by two calibrated examiners using the Fluorosis Risk Index categories. Fluorosis prevalence rates were determined separately for maxillary central incisors and first molars by levels of estimated fluoride intake. There were significant positive associations between fluorosis prevalence and levels of fluoride intake. Cumulatively from birth to 36 months, average daily intake of 0.04 mg F/kg BW or less carried relatively low risk for fluorosis (12.9{\%} for maxillary central incisors, 6.8{\%} for first molars). Average daily intake of 0.04-0.06 mg F/kg BW showed a significantly elevated risk for fluorosis (23.0{\%} for maxillary central incisors, 14.5{\%} for first molars), while fluorosis risk was even higher for average intake above 0.06 mg F/kg BW (38.0{\%} for maxillary central incisors, 32.4{\%} for first molars). The study suggests that fluorosis prevalence is related to elevated fluoride intake when averaged over the first 3 years of life, but is even more strongly related to fluoride intake that is elevated for all of the first 3 years of life.",
author = "Liang Hong and Levy, {Steven M.} and Warren, {John J.} and Barbara Broffitt and Joseph Cavanaugh",
year = "2006",
month = "10",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1159/000095648",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "40",
pages = "494--500",
journal = "Caries Research",
issn = "0008-6568",
publisher = "S. Karger AG",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Fluoride intake levels in relation to fluorosis development in permanent maxillary central incisors and first molars

AU - Hong, Liang

AU - Levy, Steven M.

AU - Warren, John J.

AU - Broffitt, Barbara

AU - Cavanaugh, Joseph

PY - 2006/10/1

Y1 - 2006/10/1

N2 - Gaps remain in our knowledge about the levels of fluoride intake that cause dental fluorosis. The purpose of this study was to report the fluorosis prevalence by levels of estimated fluoride intake in an effort to understand the importance of different levels of daily fluoride intake. As part of the longitudinal Iowa Fluoride Study, subjects were followed from birth to 36 months with questionnaires every 3-4 months to gather information on fluoride intake from various sources. Daily fluoride intake in mg per kg body weight (BW) was estimated from water, beverages and selected foods, fluoride supplements and dentifrice. Six hundred and twenty-eight subjects were examined for fluorosis on permanent incisors and first molars at about age 9 by two calibrated examiners using the Fluorosis Risk Index categories. Fluorosis prevalence rates were determined separately for maxillary central incisors and first molars by levels of estimated fluoride intake. There were significant positive associations between fluorosis prevalence and levels of fluoride intake. Cumulatively from birth to 36 months, average daily intake of 0.04 mg F/kg BW or less carried relatively low risk for fluorosis (12.9% for maxillary central incisors, 6.8% for first molars). Average daily intake of 0.04-0.06 mg F/kg BW showed a significantly elevated risk for fluorosis (23.0% for maxillary central incisors, 14.5% for first molars), while fluorosis risk was even higher for average intake above 0.06 mg F/kg BW (38.0% for maxillary central incisors, 32.4% for first molars). The study suggests that fluorosis prevalence is related to elevated fluoride intake when averaged over the first 3 years of life, but is even more strongly related to fluoride intake that is elevated for all of the first 3 years of life.

AB - Gaps remain in our knowledge about the levels of fluoride intake that cause dental fluorosis. The purpose of this study was to report the fluorosis prevalence by levels of estimated fluoride intake in an effort to understand the importance of different levels of daily fluoride intake. As part of the longitudinal Iowa Fluoride Study, subjects were followed from birth to 36 months with questionnaires every 3-4 months to gather information on fluoride intake from various sources. Daily fluoride intake in mg per kg body weight (BW) was estimated from water, beverages and selected foods, fluoride supplements and dentifrice. Six hundred and twenty-eight subjects were examined for fluorosis on permanent incisors and first molars at about age 9 by two calibrated examiners using the Fluorosis Risk Index categories. Fluorosis prevalence rates were determined separately for maxillary central incisors and first molars by levels of estimated fluoride intake. There were significant positive associations between fluorosis prevalence and levels of fluoride intake. Cumulatively from birth to 36 months, average daily intake of 0.04 mg F/kg BW or less carried relatively low risk for fluorosis (12.9% for maxillary central incisors, 6.8% for first molars). Average daily intake of 0.04-0.06 mg F/kg BW showed a significantly elevated risk for fluorosis (23.0% for maxillary central incisors, 14.5% for first molars), while fluorosis risk was even higher for average intake above 0.06 mg F/kg BW (38.0% for maxillary central incisors, 32.4% for first molars). The study suggests that fluorosis prevalence is related to elevated fluoride intake when averaged over the first 3 years of life, but is even more strongly related to fluoride intake that is elevated for all of the first 3 years of life.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33750376958&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33750376958&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1159/000095648

DO - 10.1159/000095648

M3 - Article

C2 - 17063020

AN - SCOPUS:33750376958

VL - 40

SP - 494

EP - 500

JO - Caries Research

JF - Caries Research

SN - 0008-6568

IS - 6

ER -