GATA factor regulation in excess nitrogen occurs independently of Gtr-Ego complex-dependent TorC1 activation

Jennifer J. Tate, Isabelle Georis, Rajendra Rai, Fabienne Vierendeels, Evelyne Dubois, Terrance Cooper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The TorC1 protein kinase complex is a central component in a eukaryotic cell's response to varying nitrogen availability, with kinase activity being stimulated in nitrogen excess by increased intracellular leucine. This leucine-dependent TorC1 activation requires functional Gtr1/2 and Ego1/3 complexes. Rapamycin inhibition of TorC1 elicits nuclear localization of Gln3, a GATA-family transcription activator responsible for the expression of genes encoding proteins required to transport and degrade poor nitrogen sources, e.g., proline. In nitrogen-replete conditions, Gln3 is cytoplasmic and Gln3-mediated transcription minimal, whereas in nitrogen limiting or starvation conditions, or after rapamycin treatment, Gln3 is nuclear and transcription greatly increased. Increasing evidence supports the idea that TorC1 activation may not be as central to nitrogen-responsive intracellular Gln3 localization as envisioned previously. To test this idea directly, we determined whether Gtr1/2- and Ego1/3-dependent TorC1 activation also was required for cytoplasmic Gln3 sequestration and repressed GATA factor-mediated transcription by abolishing the Gtr-Ego complex proteins. We show that Gln3 is sequestered in the cytoplasm of gtr1Δ, gtr2Δ, ego1Δ, and ego3Δ strains either long term in logarithmically glutamine-grown cells or short term after refeeding glutamine to nitrogen-limited or -starved cells; GATA factor2dependent transcription also was minimal. However, in all but a gtr1Δ, nuclear Gln3 localization in response to nitrogen limitation or starvation was adversely affected. Our data demonstrate: (i) Gtr-Ego-dependent TorC1 activation is not required for cytoplasmic Gln3 sequestration in nitrogen-rich conditions; (ii) a novel Gtr-Ego-TorC1 activation-independent mechanism sequesters Gln3 in the cytoplasm; (iii) Gtr and Ego complex proteins participate in nuclear Gln3- Myc13 localization, heretofore unrecognized functions for these proteins; and (iv) the importance of searching for new mechanisms associated with TorC1 activation and/or the regulation of Gln3 localization/function in response to changes in the cells' nitrogen environment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1625-1638
Number of pages14
JournalG3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics
Volume5
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015

Fingerprint

GATA Transcription Factors
Ego
Nitrogen
Sirolimus
Starvation
Glutamine
Leucine
Cytoplasm
Proteins
Eukaryotic Cells
Proline
Protein Kinases
Phosphotransferases

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)

Cite this

GATA factor regulation in excess nitrogen occurs independently of Gtr-Ego complex-dependent TorC1 activation. / Tate, Jennifer J.; Georis, Isabelle; Rai, Rajendra; Vierendeels, Fabienne; Dubois, Evelyne; Cooper, Terrance.

In: G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics, Vol. 5, No. 8, 01.01.2015, p. 1625-1638.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tate, Jennifer J. ; Georis, Isabelle ; Rai, Rajendra ; Vierendeels, Fabienne ; Dubois, Evelyne ; Cooper, Terrance. / GATA factor regulation in excess nitrogen occurs independently of Gtr-Ego complex-dependent TorC1 activation. In: G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics. 2015 ; Vol. 5, No. 8. pp. 1625-1638.
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T1 - GATA factor regulation in excess nitrogen occurs independently of Gtr-Ego complex-dependent TorC1 activation

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AU - Cooper, Terrance

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AB - The TorC1 protein kinase complex is a central component in a eukaryotic cell's response to varying nitrogen availability, with kinase activity being stimulated in nitrogen excess by increased intracellular leucine. This leucine-dependent TorC1 activation requires functional Gtr1/2 and Ego1/3 complexes. Rapamycin inhibition of TorC1 elicits nuclear localization of Gln3, a GATA-family transcription activator responsible for the expression of genes encoding proteins required to transport and degrade poor nitrogen sources, e.g., proline. In nitrogen-replete conditions, Gln3 is cytoplasmic and Gln3-mediated transcription minimal, whereas in nitrogen limiting or starvation conditions, or after rapamycin treatment, Gln3 is nuclear and transcription greatly increased. Increasing evidence supports the idea that TorC1 activation may not be as central to nitrogen-responsive intracellular Gln3 localization as envisioned previously. To test this idea directly, we determined whether Gtr1/2- and Ego1/3-dependent TorC1 activation also was required for cytoplasmic Gln3 sequestration and repressed GATA factor-mediated transcription by abolishing the Gtr-Ego complex proteins. We show that Gln3 is sequestered in the cytoplasm of gtr1Δ, gtr2Δ, ego1Δ, and ego3Δ strains either long term in logarithmically glutamine-grown cells or short term after refeeding glutamine to nitrogen-limited or -starved cells; GATA factor2dependent transcription also was minimal. However, in all but a gtr1Δ, nuclear Gln3 localization in response to nitrogen limitation or starvation was adversely affected. Our data demonstrate: (i) Gtr-Ego-dependent TorC1 activation is not required for cytoplasmic Gln3 sequestration in nitrogen-rich conditions; (ii) a novel Gtr-Ego-TorC1 activation-independent mechanism sequesters Gln3 in the cytoplasm; (iii) Gtr and Ego complex proteins participate in nuclear Gln3- Myc13 localization, heretofore unrecognized functions for these proteins; and (iv) the importance of searching for new mechanisms associated with TorC1 activation and/or the regulation of Gln3 localization/function in response to changes in the cells' nitrogen environment.

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