Genome-wide expression profile analysis reveals coordinately regulated genes associated with stepwise acquisition of azole resistance in Candida albicans clinical isolates

Phillip Rogers, Katherine S. Barker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

111 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Candida albicans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen and a causative agent of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), the most frequent opportunistic infection among patients with AIDS. Fluconazole and other azole antifungal agents have proven effective in the management of OPC; however, with increased use of these agents treatment failures have occurred. Such failures have been associated with the emergence of azoleresistant strains of C. albicans. In the present study we examined changes in the genome-wide gene expression profile of a series of C. albicans clinical isolates representing the stepwise acquisition of azole resistance. In addition to genes previously associated with azole resistance, we identified many genes whose differential expression was for the first time associated with this phenotype. Furthermore, the expression of these genes was correlated with that of the known resistance genes CDR1, CDR2, and CaMDR1. Genes coordinately regulated with the up-regulation of CDR1 and CDR2 included the up-regulation of GPX1 and RTA3 and the downregulation of EBP1. Genes coordinately regulated with the up-regulation of CaMDR1 included the up-regulation of IFD1, IFD4, IFD5, IFD7, GRP2, DPP1, CRD2, and INO1 and the down-regulation of FET34, OPI3, and IPF1222. Several of these appeared to be coordinately regulated with both the CDR genes and CaMDR1. Many of these genes are involved in the oxidative stress response, suggesting that reduced susceptibility to oxidative damage may contribute to azole resistance. Further evaluation of the role these genes and their respective gene products play in azole antifungal resistance is warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1220-1227
Number of pages8
JournalAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Volume47
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2003

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Azoles
Candida albicans
Genome
Genes
Up-Regulation
Candidiasis
Down-Regulation
Fluconazole
Antifungal Agents
Opportunistic Infections
Treatment Failure
Transcriptome
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Oxidative Stress
Phenotype
Gene Expression

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

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abstract = "Candida albicans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen and a causative agent of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), the most frequent opportunistic infection among patients with AIDS. Fluconazole and other azole antifungal agents have proven effective in the management of OPC; however, with increased use of these agents treatment failures have occurred. Such failures have been associated with the emergence of azoleresistant strains of C. albicans. In the present study we examined changes in the genome-wide gene expression profile of a series of C. albicans clinical isolates representing the stepwise acquisition of azole resistance. In addition to genes previously associated with azole resistance, we identified many genes whose differential expression was for the first time associated with this phenotype. Furthermore, the expression of these genes was correlated with that of the known resistance genes CDR1, CDR2, and CaMDR1. Genes coordinately regulated with the up-regulation of CDR1 and CDR2 included the up-regulation of GPX1 and RTA3 and the downregulation of EBP1. Genes coordinately regulated with the up-regulation of CaMDR1 included the up-regulation of IFD1, IFD4, IFD5, IFD7, GRP2, DPP1, CRD2, and INO1 and the down-regulation of FET34, OPI3, and IPF1222. Several of these appeared to be coordinately regulated with both the CDR genes and CaMDR1. Many of these genes are involved in the oxidative stress response, suggesting that reduced susceptibility to oxidative damage may contribute to azole resistance. Further evaluation of the role these genes and their respective gene products play in azole antifungal resistance is warranted.",
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