Hypothalamic Supraoptic and Paraventricular Nuclei

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The supraoptic and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei are the principal sources of the neurohypophysial hormones, oxytocin and vasopressin. In both nuclei, these hormones are synthesized in large (magnocellular) neurons that are critical for cardiovascular and body fluid homeostasis (vasopressin), parturition (oxytocin), and lactation (oxytocin). While the supraoptic nucleus is composed almost exclusively of magnocellular oxytocin and vasopressin neurons, the paraventricular nucleus is more complex, consisting not only of magnocellular groups like the supraoptic nucleus, but with additional projection neurons that as a group have small cell bodies (parvocellular). Some of these parvocellular neurons are also neurosecretory, and provide the principal innervation of the external layer of the eminence. Here factors controlling the secretion of adenohypophysial hormones (e.g., corticotropin releasing hormone releases adrenocorticotropin) are released and carried to the adenohypophysis in the portal vein. A third group of neurons projects outside the hypothalamus, in large measure to preautonomic and related brainstem nuclei, and to the spinal cord.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationThe Rat Nervous System
Subtitle of host publicationFourth Edition
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Pages295-314
Number of pages20
ISBN (Electronic)9780080921372
ISBN (Print)9780123742452
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015

Fingerprint

Supraoptic Nucleus
Oxytocin
Neurons
Vasopressins
Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus
Anterior Pituitary Hormones
Posterior Pituitary Hormones
Anterior Pituitary Gland
Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
Body Fluids
Portal Vein
Lactation
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
Hypothalamus
Brain Stem
Spinal Cord
Homeostasis
Parturition
Hormones

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine(all)
  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

Armstrong, W. (2015). Hypothalamic Supraoptic and Paraventricular Nuclei. In The Rat Nervous System: Fourth Edition (pp. 295-314). Elsevier Inc.. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-374245-2.00014-0

Hypothalamic Supraoptic and Paraventricular Nuclei. / Armstrong, William.

The Rat Nervous System: Fourth Edition. Elsevier Inc., 2015. p. 295-314.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Armstrong, W 2015, Hypothalamic Supraoptic and Paraventricular Nuclei. in The Rat Nervous System: Fourth Edition. Elsevier Inc., pp. 295-314. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-374245-2.00014-0
Armstrong W. Hypothalamic Supraoptic and Paraventricular Nuclei. In The Rat Nervous System: Fourth Edition. Elsevier Inc. 2015. p. 295-314 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-374245-2.00014-0
Armstrong, William. / Hypothalamic Supraoptic and Paraventricular Nuclei. The Rat Nervous System: Fourth Edition. Elsevier Inc., 2015. pp. 295-314
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