Id2 expression during apoptosis and satellite cell activation in unloaded and loaded quail skeletal muscles

Stephen Alway, Julie K. Martyn, Jun Ouyang, Archana Chaudhrai, Zsolt S. Murlasits

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

55 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Inhibitor of differentiation-2 (Id2) is a basic helix-loop-helix protein that acts as a negative regulator of the myogenic regulatory transcription factor family, but Id2 has also been implicated in apoptosis in several cell lines. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that Id2 has a role in both apoptosis-associated muscle atrophy and muscle hypertrophy. A weight corresponding to 12% of the body weight was attached to one wing of Japanese quail to induce hypertrophy in the patagialis (PAT) muscle. Birds in group 1 were killed after 5 (n = 8), 7 (n = 10), or 14 days (n = 10) of loading. The left wing was loaded for 14 days in group 2 birds, and then the weight was removed and the PAT was examined after 7 (n = 10), 14 (n = 10), or 21 (n = 5) days of unloading. A time-released bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) pellet was implanted subcutaneously with wing weighting to identify activated satellite cells during loading. The left wing was loaded for 14 days, unloaded for 14 days, and then the weight was reattached for a subsequent 7 (n = 10) or 14 days (n = 10) in group 3 birds. BrdU was implanted on the second loading phase in this group. Id2 mRNA as measured by kinetic PCR increased by 3.9-, 2.7-, and 1.6-fold, relative to control levels after 7, 14, and 21 days of unloading (group 2). Id2 protein as estimated by Western blots increased by 1.5-, 1.4-, and 0.75-fold after 7, 14, and 21 days of unloading (group 2). Muscle unloading induced apoptosis, because poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-(PARP)-positive nuclei increased and caspase 8 levels increased by 2.6- and 1.7-fold after 7 or 14 days of unloading, respectively (group 2). Although BrdU-positive nuclei increased during loading (groups 1 and 3), 50% failed to survive during unloading (group 2). Id2 mRNA increased by 2.2- and 1.8-fold after 5 and 7 days of loading, respectively, but decreased to control levels by 14 days of loading in group 1. Id2 protein levels increased 2.1-fold after 5 days of loading (group 1). In contrast, Id2 did not increase in reloaded muscles of group 3 birds. These data suggest that Id2 may have a role in apoptosis-associated atrophy of skeletal muscles, but its role in muscle hypertrophy is less clear.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Volume284
Issue number2 53-2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2003

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Quail
Skeletal Muscle
Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 2
Birds
Apoptosis
Bromodeoxyuridine
Muscles
Hypertrophy
Weights and Measures
Myogenic Regulatory Factors
Coturnix
Messenger RNA
Muscular Atrophy
Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases
Caspase 8
Atrophy
Transcription Factors
Western Blotting
Body Weight
Cell Line

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

Id2 expression during apoptosis and satellite cell activation in unloaded and loaded quail skeletal muscles. / Alway, Stephen; Martyn, Julie K.; Ouyang, Jun; Chaudhrai, Archana; Murlasits, Zsolt S.

In: American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, Vol. 284, No. 2 53-2, 01.02.2003.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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