Income inequality and pregnancy spacing

R. Gold, Frederick A. Connell, Patrick Heagerty, Stephen Bezruchka, Robert Davis, Mary Lawrence Cawthon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We examined the relationship between county-level income inequality and pregnancy spacing in a welfare-recipient cohort in Washington State. We identified 20,028 welfare-recipient women who had at least one birth between July 1, 1992, and December 31, 1999, and followed this cohort from the date of that first in-study birth until the occurrence of a subsequent pregnancy or the end of the study period. Income inequality was measured as the proportion of total county income earned by the wealthiest 10% of households in that county compared to that earned by the poorest 10%. To measure the relationship between income inequality and the time-dependent risk (hazard) of a subsequent pregnancy, we used Cox proportional hazards methods and adjusted for individual- and county-level covariates. Among women aged 25 and younger at the time of the index birth, the hazard ratio (HR) of subsequent pregnancy associated with income inequality was 1.24 (95% CI: 0.85, 1.80), controlling for individual-level (age, marital status, education at index birth; race, parity) and community-level variables. Among women aged 26 or older at the time of the index birth, the adjusted HR was 2.14 (95% CI: 1.09, 4.18). While income inequality is not the only community-level feature that may affect health, among women aged 26 or older at the index birth it appears to be associated with hazard of a subsequent pregnancy, even after controlling for other factors. These results support previous findings that income inequality may impact health, perhaps by influencing health-related behaviors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1117-1126
Number of pages10
JournalSocial Science and Medicine
Volume59
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2004
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

pregnancy
income
Pregnancy
Parturition
welfare recipient
health
earned income
marital status
Health
Marital Status
Women's Health
community
Parity
Spacing
Income
Hazard
Education
time
education

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Health(social science)
  • History and Philosophy of Science

Cite this

Gold, R., Connell, F. A., Heagerty, P., Bezruchka, S., Davis, R., & Cawthon, M. L. (2004). Income inequality and pregnancy spacing. Social Science and Medicine, 59(6), 1117-1126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.01.004

Income inequality and pregnancy spacing. / Gold, R.; Connell, Frederick A.; Heagerty, Patrick; Bezruchka, Stephen; Davis, Robert; Cawthon, Mary Lawrence.

In: Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 59, No. 6, 01.09.2004, p. 1117-1126.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gold, R, Connell, FA, Heagerty, P, Bezruchka, S, Davis, R & Cawthon, ML 2004, 'Income inequality and pregnancy spacing', Social Science and Medicine, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 1117-1126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.01.004
Gold R, Connell FA, Heagerty P, Bezruchka S, Davis R, Cawthon ML. Income inequality and pregnancy spacing. Social Science and Medicine. 2004 Sep 1;59(6):1117-1126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.01.004
Gold, R. ; Connell, Frederick A. ; Heagerty, Patrick ; Bezruchka, Stephen ; Davis, Robert ; Cawthon, Mary Lawrence. / Income inequality and pregnancy spacing. In: Social Science and Medicine. 2004 ; Vol. 59, No. 6. pp. 1117-1126.
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