Infection after pediatric heart transplantation

Results of a multiinstitutional study

K. O. Schowengerdt, D. C. Naftel, P. M. Seib, F. B. Pearce, L. J. Addonizio, J. K. Kirklin, W. R. Morrow, E. Frazier, G. Toiler, K. Ainley, I. Balfour, D. G. Pennington, L. McBride, M. Kurbat, B. Friedman, N. Bridges, T. Spray, B. Sands, J. Engro, F. J. Fricker & 78 others S. A. Miller, G. J. Boyle, S. A. Webber, J. Myers, B. P. Griffith, L. Cipriani, T. Maihle, E. Pahl, V. Zales, C. Backer, P. Stapleton, R. Sterba, C. Fraser, R. Mee, L. Latson, D. Murphy, R. Fitzgerald, L. J. Addonizio, R. Michler, J. Quaegebeur, D. Hsu, M. Kichuk, J. Douglas, R. L. Caldwell, J. Brown, M. Turrentine, R. Darragh, S. Gilchrist, R. E. Chinnock, L. Bailey, S. Gundry, A. Razzook, R. Larsen, A. Khan, G. Shirali, N. Mulla, M. Baum, D. Janner, J. Johnston, S. Robie, L. VanderDussen, S. Fritzsche, J. Allen, K. Ogata, W. Moskowitz, A. Guerraty, R. Embrey, S. Gullquist, G. Sneed, M. W. Baldecchi, M. Flattery, A. Rossi, R. Griepp, S. Lansman, B. Gelb, M. C. Courtney, R. Shaddy, J. Hawkins, E. McGough, G. Orsmond, L. Tani, M. Shearrow, E. Bullock, C. E. Canter, S. Bash, F. Hoy, R. Gomez, D. Geiss, W. Albers, J. J. Shah, C. Stables, S. Faulkner, M. L. Stenstrom, D. Bernstein, P. Gamberg, Jeffrey Towbin, O. H. Frazier, B. Radovancevic

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

67 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Detailed information regarding the spectrum and predictors of infection after heart transplantation in children is limited because of relatively small numbers of patients at any single institution. We therefore used combined data obtained from the Pediatric Heart Transplant Study Group to gain additional information regarding infectious complications in the pediatric population. Methods: To determine the time-related risk of infection and death related to infection in a large pediatric patient population, we analyzed data related to 332 pediatric patients (undergoing heart transplantation between January 1, 1993, and December 31, 1994) from 22 institutions in the Pediatric Heart Transplant Study Group. Results: Among the 332 total patients, 276 infections were identified in 136 patients. Of those patients with development of infection, a single infection episode was reported in 54% of patients, 21% had two infections, and 25% had three or more infections. Of the 276 infections, 164 (60%) were bacterial. 51 (18%) were due to cytomegalovirus, 35 (13%) were other viral (noncytomegalovirus) infections. 19 (7%) were fungal, and 7 (2%) were protozoal. Bacterial infections were more common in infants younger than 6 months of age at time of transplantation, comprising 73% of all infections as compared with 49% in patients older than 6 months of age. The incidence of bacterial infection peaked during the first month after transplantation, with the actuarial likelihood of a bacterial infection among all patients reaching 25% at 2 months. The most common sites of bacterial infection were blood and lung (74% of bacterial infections). Cytomegalovirus accounted for 59% of viral infections, with a peak hazard occurring at 2 months after transplantation. Among all infections, cytomegalovirus was less common in infants younger than 6 months of age (8% of all infections) than in older patients (25%). By multivariate analysis, risk factors for early infection included younger recipient age (D = 0.05), mechanical ventilation at time of transplantation (p = 0.0002), positive donor cytomegalovirus serologic study result with negative recipient result (p = 0.004), and longer donor ischemic time (p = 0.04). The overall mortality rate from infection was 5%, with an actuarial freedom from death related to infection of 920/o at 1 year after transplantation. The mortality rate was high in patients with fungal infections (52%), yet was low for those with cytomegalovirus infection (6%). Infections accounted for 27% of the overall mortality rate in infants younger than 6 months of age, compared with 16% for older patients. Conclusions: Although most infections in pediatric heart transplant recipients are successfully treated, infection remains an important cause of posttransplantation morbidity and death, especially in infants. Bacterial infections predominate within the first month after transplantation, whereas the peak hazard for viral infections occurs approximately 2 months after transplantation. Cytomegalovirus infections are common in the pediatric transplant population, but death related to cytomegalovirus is low.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1207-1215
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Volume16
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 1997
Externally publishedYes

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Heart Transplantation
Pediatrics
Infection
Bacterial Infections
Transplantation
Cytomegalovirus
Cytomegalovirus Infections
Virus Diseases
Transplants
Mortality
Tissue Donors
Population
Mycoses
Artificial Respiration

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Transplantation

Cite this

Schowengerdt, K. O., Naftel, D. C., Seib, P. M., Pearce, F. B., Addonizio, L. J., Kirklin, J. K., ... Radovancevic, B. (1997). Infection after pediatric heart transplantation: Results of a multiinstitutional study. Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, 16(12), 1207-1215.

Infection after pediatric heart transplantation : Results of a multiinstitutional study. / Schowengerdt, K. O.; Naftel, D. C.; Seib, P. M.; Pearce, F. B.; Addonizio, L. J.; Kirklin, J. K.; Morrow, W. R.; Frazier, E.; Toiler, G.; Ainley, K.; Balfour, I.; Pennington, D. G.; McBride, L.; Kurbat, M.; Friedman, B.; Bridges, N.; Spray, T.; Sands, B.; Engro, J.; Fricker, F. J.; Miller, S. A.; Boyle, G. J.; Webber, S. A.; Myers, J.; Griffith, B. P.; Cipriani, L.; Maihle, T.; Pahl, E.; Zales, V.; Backer, C.; Stapleton, P.; Sterba, R.; Fraser, C.; Mee, R.; Latson, L.; Murphy, D.; Fitzgerald, R.; Addonizio, L. J.; Michler, R.; Quaegebeur, J.; Hsu, D.; Kichuk, M.; Douglas, J.; Caldwell, R. L.; Brown, J.; Turrentine, M.; Darragh, R.; Gilchrist, S.; Chinnock, R. E.; Bailey, L.; Gundry, S.; Razzook, A.; Larsen, R.; Khan, A.; Shirali, G.; Mulla, N.; Baum, M.; Janner, D.; Johnston, J.; Robie, S.; VanderDussen, L.; Fritzsche, S.; Allen, J.; Ogata, K.; Moskowitz, W.; Guerraty, A.; Embrey, R.; Gullquist, S.; Sneed, G.; Baldecchi, M. W.; Flattery, M.; Rossi, A.; Griepp, R.; Lansman, S.; Gelb, B.; Courtney, M. C.; Shaddy, R.; Hawkins, J.; McGough, E.; Orsmond, G.; Tani, L.; Shearrow, M.; Bullock, E.; Canter, C. E.; Bash, S.; Hoy, F.; Gomez, R.; Geiss, D.; Albers, W.; Shah, J. J.; Stables, C.; Faulkner, S.; Stenstrom, M. L.; Bernstein, D.; Gamberg, P.; Towbin, Jeffrey; Frazier, O. H.; Radovancevic, B.

In: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, Vol. 16, No. 12, 01.12.1997, p. 1207-1215.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Schowengerdt, KO, Naftel, DC, Seib, PM, Pearce, FB, Addonizio, LJ, Kirklin, JK, Morrow, WR, Frazier, E, Toiler, G, Ainley, K, Balfour, I, Pennington, DG, McBride, L, Kurbat, M, Friedman, B, Bridges, N, Spray, T, Sands, B, Engro, J, Fricker, FJ, Miller, SA, Boyle, GJ, Webber, SA, Myers, J, Griffith, BP, Cipriani, L, Maihle, T, Pahl, E, Zales, V, Backer, C, Stapleton, P, Sterba, R, Fraser, C, Mee, R, Latson, L, Murphy, D, Fitzgerald, R, Addonizio, LJ, Michler, R, Quaegebeur, J, Hsu, D, Kichuk, M, Douglas, J, Caldwell, RL, Brown, J, Turrentine, M, Darragh, R, Gilchrist, S, Chinnock, RE, Bailey, L, Gundry, S, Razzook, A, Larsen, R, Khan, A, Shirali, G, Mulla, N, Baum, M, Janner, D, Johnston, J, Robie, S, VanderDussen, L, Fritzsche, S, Allen, J, Ogata, K, Moskowitz, W, Guerraty, A, Embrey, R, Gullquist, S, Sneed, G, Baldecchi, MW, Flattery, M, Rossi, A, Griepp, R, Lansman, S, Gelb, B, Courtney, MC, Shaddy, R, Hawkins, J, McGough, E, Orsmond, G, Tani, L, Shearrow, M, Bullock, E, Canter, CE, Bash, S, Hoy, F, Gomez, R, Geiss, D, Albers, W, Shah, JJ, Stables, C, Faulkner, S, Stenstrom, ML, Bernstein, D, Gamberg, P, Towbin, J, Frazier, OH & Radovancevic, B 1997, 'Infection after pediatric heart transplantation: Results of a multiinstitutional study', Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 1207-1215.
Schowengerdt KO, Naftel DC, Seib PM, Pearce FB, Addonizio LJ, Kirklin JK et al. Infection after pediatric heart transplantation: Results of a multiinstitutional study. Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation. 1997 Dec 1;16(12):1207-1215.
Schowengerdt, K. O. ; Naftel, D. C. ; Seib, P. M. ; Pearce, F. B. ; Addonizio, L. J. ; Kirklin, J. K. ; Morrow, W. R. ; Frazier, E. ; Toiler, G. ; Ainley, K. ; Balfour, I. ; Pennington, D. G. ; McBride, L. ; Kurbat, M. ; Friedman, B. ; Bridges, N. ; Spray, T. ; Sands, B. ; Engro, J. ; Fricker, F. J. ; Miller, S. A. ; Boyle, G. J. ; Webber, S. A. ; Myers, J. ; Griffith, B. P. ; Cipriani, L. ; Maihle, T. ; Pahl, E. ; Zales, V. ; Backer, C. ; Stapleton, P. ; Sterba, R. ; Fraser, C. ; Mee, R. ; Latson, L. ; Murphy, D. ; Fitzgerald, R. ; Addonizio, L. J. ; Michler, R. ; Quaegebeur, J. ; Hsu, D. ; Kichuk, M. ; Douglas, J. ; Caldwell, R. L. ; Brown, J. ; Turrentine, M. ; Darragh, R. ; Gilchrist, S. ; Chinnock, R. E. ; Bailey, L. ; Gundry, S. ; Razzook, A. ; Larsen, R. ; Khan, A. ; Shirali, G. ; Mulla, N. ; Baum, M. ; Janner, D. ; Johnston, J. ; Robie, S. ; VanderDussen, L. ; Fritzsche, S. ; Allen, J. ; Ogata, K. ; Moskowitz, W. ; Guerraty, A. ; Embrey, R. ; Gullquist, S. ; Sneed, G. ; Baldecchi, M. W. ; Flattery, M. ; Rossi, A. ; Griepp, R. ; Lansman, S. ; Gelb, B. ; Courtney, M. C. ; Shaddy, R. ; Hawkins, J. ; McGough, E. ; Orsmond, G. ; Tani, L. ; Shearrow, M. ; Bullock, E. ; Canter, C. E. ; Bash, S. ; Hoy, F. ; Gomez, R. ; Geiss, D. ; Albers, W. ; Shah, J. J. ; Stables, C. ; Faulkner, S. ; Stenstrom, M. L. ; Bernstein, D. ; Gamberg, P. ; Towbin, Jeffrey ; Frazier, O. H. ; Radovancevic, B. / Infection after pediatric heart transplantation : Results of a multiinstitutional study. In: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation. 1997 ; Vol. 16, No. 12. pp. 1207-1215.
@article{5653e32812a543d5a150bfba454f53d9,
title = "Infection after pediatric heart transplantation: Results of a multiinstitutional study",
abstract = "Background: Detailed information regarding the spectrum and predictors of infection after heart transplantation in children is limited because of relatively small numbers of patients at any single institution. We therefore used combined data obtained from the Pediatric Heart Transplant Study Group to gain additional information regarding infectious complications in the pediatric population. Methods: To determine the time-related risk of infection and death related to infection in a large pediatric patient population, we analyzed data related to 332 pediatric patients (undergoing heart transplantation between January 1, 1993, and December 31, 1994) from 22 institutions in the Pediatric Heart Transplant Study Group. Results: Among the 332 total patients, 276 infections were identified in 136 patients. Of those patients with development of infection, a single infection episode was reported in 54{\%} of patients, 21{\%} had two infections, and 25{\%} had three or more infections. Of the 276 infections, 164 (60{\%}) were bacterial. 51 (18{\%}) were due to cytomegalovirus, 35 (13{\%}) were other viral (noncytomegalovirus) infections. 19 (7{\%}) were fungal, and 7 (2{\%}) were protozoal. Bacterial infections were more common in infants younger than 6 months of age at time of transplantation, comprising 73{\%} of all infections as compared with 49{\%} in patients older than 6 months of age. The incidence of bacterial infection peaked during the first month after transplantation, with the actuarial likelihood of a bacterial infection among all patients reaching 25{\%} at 2 months. The most common sites of bacterial infection were blood and lung (74{\%} of bacterial infections). Cytomegalovirus accounted for 59{\%} of viral infections, with a peak hazard occurring at 2 months after transplantation. Among all infections, cytomegalovirus was less common in infants younger than 6 months of age (8{\%} of all infections) than in older patients (25{\%}). By multivariate analysis, risk factors for early infection included younger recipient age (D = 0.05), mechanical ventilation at time of transplantation (p = 0.0002), positive donor cytomegalovirus serologic study result with negative recipient result (p = 0.004), and longer donor ischemic time (p = 0.04). The overall mortality rate from infection was 5{\%}, with an actuarial freedom from death related to infection of 920/o at 1 year after transplantation. The mortality rate was high in patients with fungal infections (52{\%}), yet was low for those with cytomegalovirus infection (6{\%}). Infections accounted for 27{\%} of the overall mortality rate in infants younger than 6 months of age, compared with 16{\%} for older patients. Conclusions: Although most infections in pediatric heart transplant recipients are successfully treated, infection remains an important cause of posttransplantation morbidity and death, especially in infants. Bacterial infections predominate within the first month after transplantation, whereas the peak hazard for viral infections occurs approximately 2 months after transplantation. Cytomegalovirus infections are common in the pediatric transplant population, but death related to cytomegalovirus is low.",
author = "Schowengerdt, {K. O.} and Naftel, {D. C.} and Seib, {P. M.} and Pearce, {F. B.} and Addonizio, {L. J.} and Kirklin, {J. K.} and Morrow, {W. R.} and E. Frazier and G. Toiler and K. Ainley and I. Balfour and Pennington, {D. G.} and L. McBride and M. Kurbat and B. Friedman and N. Bridges and T. Spray and B. Sands and J. Engro and Fricker, {F. J.} and Miller, {S. A.} and Boyle, {G. J.} and Webber, {S. A.} and J. Myers and Griffith, {B. P.} and L. Cipriani and T. Maihle and E. Pahl and V. Zales and C. Backer and P. Stapleton and R. Sterba and C. Fraser and R. Mee and L. Latson and D. Murphy and R. Fitzgerald and Addonizio, {L. J.} and R. Michler and J. Quaegebeur and D. Hsu and M. Kichuk and J. Douglas and Caldwell, {R. L.} and J. Brown and M. Turrentine and R. Darragh and S. Gilchrist and Chinnock, {R. E.} and L. Bailey and S. Gundry and A. Razzook and R. Larsen and A. Khan and G. Shirali and N. Mulla and M. Baum and D. Janner and J. Johnston and S. Robie and L. VanderDussen and S. Fritzsche and J. Allen and K. Ogata and W. Moskowitz and A. Guerraty and R. Embrey and S. Gullquist and G. Sneed and Baldecchi, {M. W.} and M. Flattery and A. Rossi and R. Griepp and S. Lansman and B. Gelb and Courtney, {M. C.} and R. Shaddy and J. Hawkins and E. McGough and G. Orsmond and L. Tani and M. Shearrow and E. Bullock and Canter, {C. E.} and S. Bash and F. Hoy and R. Gomez and D. Geiss and W. Albers and Shah, {J. J.} and C. Stables and S. Faulkner and Stenstrom, {M. L.} and D. Bernstein and P. Gamberg and Jeffrey Towbin and Frazier, {O. H.} and B. Radovancevic",
year = "1997",
month = "12",
day = "1",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "16",
pages = "1207--1215",
journal = "Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation",
issn = "1053-2498",
publisher = "Elsevier USA",
number = "12",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Infection after pediatric heart transplantation

T2 - Results of a multiinstitutional study

AU - Schowengerdt, K. O.

AU - Naftel, D. C.

AU - Seib, P. M.

AU - Pearce, F. B.

AU - Addonizio, L. J.

AU - Kirklin, J. K.

AU - Morrow, W. R.

AU - Frazier, E.

AU - Toiler, G.

AU - Ainley, K.

AU - Balfour, I.

AU - Pennington, D. G.

AU - McBride, L.

AU - Kurbat, M.

AU - Friedman, B.

AU - Bridges, N.

AU - Spray, T.

AU - Sands, B.

AU - Engro, J.

AU - Fricker, F. J.

AU - Miller, S. A.

AU - Boyle, G. J.

AU - Webber, S. A.

AU - Myers, J.

AU - Griffith, B. P.

AU - Cipriani, L.

AU - Maihle, T.

AU - Pahl, E.

AU - Zales, V.

AU - Backer, C.

AU - Stapleton, P.

AU - Sterba, R.

AU - Fraser, C.

AU - Mee, R.

AU - Latson, L.

AU - Murphy, D.

AU - Fitzgerald, R.

AU - Addonizio, L. J.

AU - Michler, R.

AU - Quaegebeur, J.

AU - Hsu, D.

AU - Kichuk, M.

AU - Douglas, J.

AU - Caldwell, R. L.

AU - Brown, J.

AU - Turrentine, M.

AU - Darragh, R.

AU - Gilchrist, S.

AU - Chinnock, R. E.

AU - Bailey, L.

AU - Gundry, S.

AU - Razzook, A.

AU - Larsen, R.

AU - Khan, A.

AU - Shirali, G.

AU - Mulla, N.

AU - Baum, M.

AU - Janner, D.

AU - Johnston, J.

AU - Robie, S.

AU - VanderDussen, L.

AU - Fritzsche, S.

AU - Allen, J.

AU - Ogata, K.

AU - Moskowitz, W.

AU - Guerraty, A.

AU - Embrey, R.

AU - Gullquist, S.

AU - Sneed, G.

AU - Baldecchi, M. W.

AU - Flattery, M.

AU - Rossi, A.

AU - Griepp, R.

AU - Lansman, S.

AU - Gelb, B.

AU - Courtney, M. C.

AU - Shaddy, R.

AU - Hawkins, J.

AU - McGough, E.

AU - Orsmond, G.

AU - Tani, L.

AU - Shearrow, M.

AU - Bullock, E.

AU - Canter, C. E.

AU - Bash, S.

AU - Hoy, F.

AU - Gomez, R.

AU - Geiss, D.

AU - Albers, W.

AU - Shah, J. J.

AU - Stables, C.

AU - Faulkner, S.

AU - Stenstrom, M. L.

AU - Bernstein, D.

AU - Gamberg, P.

AU - Towbin, Jeffrey

AU - Frazier, O. H.

AU - Radovancevic, B.

PY - 1997/12/1

Y1 - 1997/12/1

N2 - Background: Detailed information regarding the spectrum and predictors of infection after heart transplantation in children is limited because of relatively small numbers of patients at any single institution. We therefore used combined data obtained from the Pediatric Heart Transplant Study Group to gain additional information regarding infectious complications in the pediatric population. Methods: To determine the time-related risk of infection and death related to infection in a large pediatric patient population, we analyzed data related to 332 pediatric patients (undergoing heart transplantation between January 1, 1993, and December 31, 1994) from 22 institutions in the Pediatric Heart Transplant Study Group. Results: Among the 332 total patients, 276 infections were identified in 136 patients. Of those patients with development of infection, a single infection episode was reported in 54% of patients, 21% had two infections, and 25% had three or more infections. Of the 276 infections, 164 (60%) were bacterial. 51 (18%) were due to cytomegalovirus, 35 (13%) were other viral (noncytomegalovirus) infections. 19 (7%) were fungal, and 7 (2%) were protozoal. Bacterial infections were more common in infants younger than 6 months of age at time of transplantation, comprising 73% of all infections as compared with 49% in patients older than 6 months of age. The incidence of bacterial infection peaked during the first month after transplantation, with the actuarial likelihood of a bacterial infection among all patients reaching 25% at 2 months. The most common sites of bacterial infection were blood and lung (74% of bacterial infections). Cytomegalovirus accounted for 59% of viral infections, with a peak hazard occurring at 2 months after transplantation. Among all infections, cytomegalovirus was less common in infants younger than 6 months of age (8% of all infections) than in older patients (25%). By multivariate analysis, risk factors for early infection included younger recipient age (D = 0.05), mechanical ventilation at time of transplantation (p = 0.0002), positive donor cytomegalovirus serologic study result with negative recipient result (p = 0.004), and longer donor ischemic time (p = 0.04). The overall mortality rate from infection was 5%, with an actuarial freedom from death related to infection of 920/o at 1 year after transplantation. The mortality rate was high in patients with fungal infections (52%), yet was low for those with cytomegalovirus infection (6%). Infections accounted for 27% of the overall mortality rate in infants younger than 6 months of age, compared with 16% for older patients. Conclusions: Although most infections in pediatric heart transplant recipients are successfully treated, infection remains an important cause of posttransplantation morbidity and death, especially in infants. Bacterial infections predominate within the first month after transplantation, whereas the peak hazard for viral infections occurs approximately 2 months after transplantation. Cytomegalovirus infections are common in the pediatric transplant population, but death related to cytomegalovirus is low.

AB - Background: Detailed information regarding the spectrum and predictors of infection after heart transplantation in children is limited because of relatively small numbers of patients at any single institution. We therefore used combined data obtained from the Pediatric Heart Transplant Study Group to gain additional information regarding infectious complications in the pediatric population. Methods: To determine the time-related risk of infection and death related to infection in a large pediatric patient population, we analyzed data related to 332 pediatric patients (undergoing heart transplantation between January 1, 1993, and December 31, 1994) from 22 institutions in the Pediatric Heart Transplant Study Group. Results: Among the 332 total patients, 276 infections were identified in 136 patients. Of those patients with development of infection, a single infection episode was reported in 54% of patients, 21% had two infections, and 25% had three or more infections. Of the 276 infections, 164 (60%) were bacterial. 51 (18%) were due to cytomegalovirus, 35 (13%) were other viral (noncytomegalovirus) infections. 19 (7%) were fungal, and 7 (2%) were protozoal. Bacterial infections were more common in infants younger than 6 months of age at time of transplantation, comprising 73% of all infections as compared with 49% in patients older than 6 months of age. The incidence of bacterial infection peaked during the first month after transplantation, with the actuarial likelihood of a bacterial infection among all patients reaching 25% at 2 months. The most common sites of bacterial infection were blood and lung (74% of bacterial infections). Cytomegalovirus accounted for 59% of viral infections, with a peak hazard occurring at 2 months after transplantation. Among all infections, cytomegalovirus was less common in infants younger than 6 months of age (8% of all infections) than in older patients (25%). By multivariate analysis, risk factors for early infection included younger recipient age (D = 0.05), mechanical ventilation at time of transplantation (p = 0.0002), positive donor cytomegalovirus serologic study result with negative recipient result (p = 0.004), and longer donor ischemic time (p = 0.04). The overall mortality rate from infection was 5%, with an actuarial freedom from death related to infection of 920/o at 1 year after transplantation. The mortality rate was high in patients with fungal infections (52%), yet was low for those with cytomegalovirus infection (6%). Infections accounted for 27% of the overall mortality rate in infants younger than 6 months of age, compared with 16% for older patients. Conclusions: Although most infections in pediatric heart transplant recipients are successfully treated, infection remains an important cause of posttransplantation morbidity and death, especially in infants. Bacterial infections predominate within the first month after transplantation, whereas the peak hazard for viral infections occurs approximately 2 months after transplantation. Cytomegalovirus infections are common in the pediatric transplant population, but death related to cytomegalovirus is low.

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M3 - Article

VL - 16

SP - 1207

EP - 1215

JO - Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation

JF - Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation

SN - 1053-2498

IS - 12

ER -