Infection-related complications during treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Hiroto Inaba, D. Pei, J. Wolf, Scott Howard, R. T. Hayden, M. Go, O. Varechtchouk, T. Hahn, J. Buaboonnam, M. L. Metzger, J. E. Rubnitz, R. C. Ribeiro, J. T. Sandlund, S. Jeha, C. Cheng, W. E. Evans, M. V. Relling, C. H. Pui

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Abstract

Background: Comprehensive studies on neutropenia and infection-related complications in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are lacking. Patients and methods: We evaluated infection-related complications that were grade≥3 on National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 3.0) and their risk factors in 409 children with newly diagnosed ALL throughout the treatment period. Results: Of the 2420 infection episodes, febrile neutropenia and clinically or microbiologically documented infection were seen in 1107 and 1313 episodes, respectively. Among documented infection episodes, upper respiratory tract was the most common site (n=389), followed by ear (n=151), bloodstream (n=147), and gastrointestinal tract (n=145) infections. These episodes were more common during intensified therapy phases such as remission induction and reinduction, but respiratory and ear infections, presumably viral in origin, also occurred during continuation phases. The 3-year cumulative incidence of infection-related death was low (1.0±0.9%, n=4), including 2 from Bacillus cereus bacteremia. There was no fungal infectionrelated mortality. Age 1-9.9 years at diagnosis was associated with febrile neutropenia (P=0.002) during induction and febrile neutropenia and documented infection (both P < 0.001) during later continuation. White race was associated with documented infection (P=0.034) during induction. Compared with low-risk patients, standard- and high-risk patients received more intensive therapy during early continuation and had higher incidences of febrile neutropenia (P < 0.001) and documented infections (P=0.043). Furthermore, poor neutrophil surge after dexamethasone pulses during continuation, which can reflect the poor bone marrow reserve, was associated with infections (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The incidence of infection-related death was low. However, young age, white race, intensive chemotherapy, and lack of neutrophil surge after dexamethasone treatment were associated with infection-related complications. Close monitoring for prompt administration of antibiotics andmodification of chemotherapy should be considered in these patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)386-392
Number of pages7
JournalAnnals of Oncology
Volume28
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017

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Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
Infection
Febrile Neutropenia
Therapeutics
Respiratory Tract Infections
Dexamethasone
Ear
Incidence
Neutrophils
Remission Induction
Drug Therapy
Bacillus cereus
National Cancer Institute (U.S.)
Bacteremia
Neutropenia
Terminology
Gastrointestinal Tract
Bone Marrow
Anti-Bacterial Agents

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Hematology
  • Oncology

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Infection-related complications during treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. / Inaba, Hiroto; Pei, D.; Wolf, J.; Howard, Scott; Hayden, R. T.; Go, M.; Varechtchouk, O.; Hahn, T.; Buaboonnam, J.; Metzger, M. L.; Rubnitz, J. E.; Ribeiro, R. C.; Sandlund, J. T.; Jeha, S.; Cheng, C.; Evans, W. E.; Relling, M. V.; Pui, C. H.

In: Annals of Oncology, Vol. 28, No. 2, 01.01.2017, p. 386-392.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Inaba, H, Pei, D, Wolf, J, Howard, S, Hayden, RT, Go, M, Varechtchouk, O, Hahn, T, Buaboonnam, J, Metzger, ML, Rubnitz, JE, Ribeiro, RC, Sandlund, JT, Jeha, S, Cheng, C, Evans, WE, Relling, MV & Pui, CH 2017, 'Infection-related complications during treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia', Annals of Oncology, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 386-392. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdw557
Inaba, Hiroto ; Pei, D. ; Wolf, J. ; Howard, Scott ; Hayden, R. T. ; Go, M. ; Varechtchouk, O. ; Hahn, T. ; Buaboonnam, J. ; Metzger, M. L. ; Rubnitz, J. E. ; Ribeiro, R. C. ; Sandlund, J. T. ; Jeha, S. ; Cheng, C. ; Evans, W. E. ; Relling, M. V. ; Pui, C. H. / Infection-related complications during treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In: Annals of Oncology. 2017 ; Vol. 28, No. 2. pp. 386-392.
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abstract = "Background: Comprehensive studies on neutropenia and infection-related complications in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are lacking. Patients and methods: We evaluated infection-related complications that were grade≥3 on National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 3.0) and their risk factors in 409 children with newly diagnosed ALL throughout the treatment period. Results: Of the 2420 infection episodes, febrile neutropenia and clinically or microbiologically documented infection were seen in 1107 and 1313 episodes, respectively. Among documented infection episodes, upper respiratory tract was the most common site (n=389), followed by ear (n=151), bloodstream (n=147), and gastrointestinal tract (n=145) infections. These episodes were more common during intensified therapy phases such as remission induction and reinduction, but respiratory and ear infections, presumably viral in origin, also occurred during continuation phases. The 3-year cumulative incidence of infection-related death was low (1.0±0.9{\%}, n=4), including 2 from Bacillus cereus bacteremia. There was no fungal infectionrelated mortality. Age 1-9.9 years at diagnosis was associated with febrile neutropenia (P=0.002) during induction and febrile neutropenia and documented infection (both P < 0.001) during later continuation. White race was associated with documented infection (P=0.034) during induction. Compared with low-risk patients, standard- and high-risk patients received more intensive therapy during early continuation and had higher incidences of febrile neutropenia (P < 0.001) and documented infections (P=0.043). Furthermore, poor neutrophil surge after dexamethasone pulses during continuation, which can reflect the poor bone marrow reserve, was associated with infections (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The incidence of infection-related death was low. However, young age, white race, intensive chemotherapy, and lack of neutrophil surge after dexamethasone treatment were associated with infection-related complications. Close monitoring for prompt administration of antibiotics andmodification of chemotherapy should be considered in these patients.",
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AU - Inaba, Hiroto

AU - Pei, D.

AU - Wolf, J.

AU - Howard, Scott

AU - Hayden, R. T.

AU - Go, M.

AU - Varechtchouk, O.

AU - Hahn, T.

AU - Buaboonnam, J.

AU - Metzger, M. L.

AU - Rubnitz, J. E.

AU - Ribeiro, R. C.

AU - Sandlund, J. T.

AU - Jeha, S.

AU - Cheng, C.

AU - Evans, W. E.

AU - Relling, M. V.

AU - Pui, C. H.

PY - 2017/1/1

Y1 - 2017/1/1

N2 - Background: Comprehensive studies on neutropenia and infection-related complications in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are lacking. Patients and methods: We evaluated infection-related complications that were grade≥3 on National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 3.0) and their risk factors in 409 children with newly diagnosed ALL throughout the treatment period. Results: Of the 2420 infection episodes, febrile neutropenia and clinically or microbiologically documented infection were seen in 1107 and 1313 episodes, respectively. Among documented infection episodes, upper respiratory tract was the most common site (n=389), followed by ear (n=151), bloodstream (n=147), and gastrointestinal tract (n=145) infections. These episodes were more common during intensified therapy phases such as remission induction and reinduction, but respiratory and ear infections, presumably viral in origin, also occurred during continuation phases. The 3-year cumulative incidence of infection-related death was low (1.0±0.9%, n=4), including 2 from Bacillus cereus bacteremia. There was no fungal infectionrelated mortality. Age 1-9.9 years at diagnosis was associated with febrile neutropenia (P=0.002) during induction and febrile neutropenia and documented infection (both P < 0.001) during later continuation. White race was associated with documented infection (P=0.034) during induction. Compared with low-risk patients, standard- and high-risk patients received more intensive therapy during early continuation and had higher incidences of febrile neutropenia (P < 0.001) and documented infections (P=0.043). Furthermore, poor neutrophil surge after dexamethasone pulses during continuation, which can reflect the poor bone marrow reserve, was associated with infections (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The incidence of infection-related death was low. However, young age, white race, intensive chemotherapy, and lack of neutrophil surge after dexamethasone treatment were associated with infection-related complications. Close monitoring for prompt administration of antibiotics andmodification of chemotherapy should be considered in these patients.

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