Jjj1 Is a Negative Regulator of Pdr1-Mediated Fluconazole Resistance in Candida glabrata

Sarah G. Whaley, Kelly E. Caudle, Lucia Simonicova, Qing Zhang, W. Scott Moye-Rowley, Phillip Rogers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

The high prevalence of fluconazole resistance among clinical isolates of Candida glabrata has greatly hampered the utility of fluconazole for the treatment of invasive candidiasis. Fluconazole resistance in this yeast is almost exclusively due to activating mutations in the transcription factor Pdr1, which result in upregulation of the ABC transporter genes CDR1, PDH1, and SNQ2 and therefore increased fluconazole efflux. However, the regulation of Pdr1 is poorly understood. In order to identify genes that interact with the Pdr1 transcriptional pathway and influence the susceptibility of C. glabrata to fluconazole, we screened a collection of deletion mutants for those exhibiting increased resistance to fluconazole. Deletion of the gene coding for a protein homologous to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae J protein Jjj1 resulted in decreased fluconazole susceptibility. We used the SAT1 flipper method to generate independent deletion mutants for JJJ1 in an SDD clinical isolate. Expression of both CDR1 and PDR1 was increased in the absence of JJJ1. In the absence of CDR1 or PDR1, deletion of JJJ1 has only a modest effect on fluconazole susceptibility. Transcriptional profiling using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed upregulation of genes of the Pdr1 regulon in the absence of JJJ1. Jjj1 appears to be a negative regulator of fluconazole resistance in C. glabrata and acts primarily through upregulation of the ABC transporter gene CDR1 via activation of the Pdr1 transcriptional pathway. IMPORTANCECandida glabrata is the second most common species of Candida recovered from patients with invasive candidiasis. The increasing number of infections due to C. glabrata, combined with its high rates of resistance to the commonly used, well-tolerated azole class of antifungal agents, has limited the use of this antifungal class. This has led to the preferential use of echinocandins as empirical treatment for serious Candida infections. The primary mechanism of resistance found in clinical isolates is the presence of an activating mutation in the gene encoding the transcription factor Pdr1 that results in upregulation of one or more of the efflux pumps Cdr1, Pdh1, and Snq2. By developing a better understanding of this mechanism of resistance to the azoles, it will be possible to develop strategies for reclaiming the utility of the azole antifungals against this important fungal pathogen.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalmSphere
Volume3
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018

Fingerprint

Candida glabrata
Fluconazole
Azoles
Up-Regulation
Invasive Candidiasis
ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters
Genes
Candida
Transcription Factors
Echinocandins
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
RNA Sequence Analysis
Regulon
Mutation
Antifungal Agents
Gene Deletion
Gene Expression Profiling
Infection
Transcriptional Activation
Yeasts

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Microbiology
  • Molecular Biology

Cite this

Jjj1 Is a Negative Regulator of Pdr1-Mediated Fluconazole Resistance in Candida glabrata. / Whaley, Sarah G.; Caudle, Kelly E.; Simonicova, Lucia; Zhang, Qing; Moye-Rowley, W. Scott; Rogers, Phillip.

In: mSphere, Vol. 3, No. 1, 01.01.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Whaley, Sarah G. ; Caudle, Kelly E. ; Simonicova, Lucia ; Zhang, Qing ; Moye-Rowley, W. Scott ; Rogers, Phillip. / Jjj1 Is a Negative Regulator of Pdr1-Mediated Fluconazole Resistance in Candida glabrata. In: mSphere. 2018 ; Vol. 3, No. 1.
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abstract = "The high prevalence of fluconazole resistance among clinical isolates of Candida glabrata has greatly hampered the utility of fluconazole for the treatment of invasive candidiasis. Fluconazole resistance in this yeast is almost exclusively due to activating mutations in the transcription factor Pdr1, which result in upregulation of the ABC transporter genes CDR1, PDH1, and SNQ2 and therefore increased fluconazole efflux. However, the regulation of Pdr1 is poorly understood. In order to identify genes that interact with the Pdr1 transcriptional pathway and influence the susceptibility of C. glabrata to fluconazole, we screened a collection of deletion mutants for those exhibiting increased resistance to fluconazole. Deletion of the gene coding for a protein homologous to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae J protein Jjj1 resulted in decreased fluconazole susceptibility. We used the SAT1 flipper method to generate independent deletion mutants for JJJ1 in an SDD clinical isolate. Expression of both CDR1 and PDR1 was increased in the absence of JJJ1. In the absence of CDR1 or PDR1, deletion of JJJ1 has only a modest effect on fluconazole susceptibility. Transcriptional profiling using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed upregulation of genes of the Pdr1 regulon in the absence of JJJ1. Jjj1 appears to be a negative regulator of fluconazole resistance in C. glabrata and acts primarily through upregulation of the ABC transporter gene CDR1 via activation of the Pdr1 transcriptional pathway. IMPORTANCECandida glabrata is the second most common species of Candida recovered from patients with invasive candidiasis. The increasing number of infections due to C. glabrata, combined with its high rates of resistance to the commonly used, well-tolerated azole class of antifungal agents, has limited the use of this antifungal class. This has led to the preferential use of echinocandins as empirical treatment for serious Candida infections. The primary mechanism of resistance found in clinical isolates is the presence of an activating mutation in the gene encoding the transcription factor Pdr1 that results in upregulation of one or more of the efflux pumps Cdr1, Pdh1, and Snq2. By developing a better understanding of this mechanism of resistance to the azoles, it will be possible to develop strategies for reclaiming the utility of the azole antifungals against this important fungal pathogen.",
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N2 - The high prevalence of fluconazole resistance among clinical isolates of Candida glabrata has greatly hampered the utility of fluconazole for the treatment of invasive candidiasis. Fluconazole resistance in this yeast is almost exclusively due to activating mutations in the transcription factor Pdr1, which result in upregulation of the ABC transporter genes CDR1, PDH1, and SNQ2 and therefore increased fluconazole efflux. However, the regulation of Pdr1 is poorly understood. In order to identify genes that interact with the Pdr1 transcriptional pathway and influence the susceptibility of C. glabrata to fluconazole, we screened a collection of deletion mutants for those exhibiting increased resistance to fluconazole. Deletion of the gene coding for a protein homologous to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae J protein Jjj1 resulted in decreased fluconazole susceptibility. We used the SAT1 flipper method to generate independent deletion mutants for JJJ1 in an SDD clinical isolate. Expression of both CDR1 and PDR1 was increased in the absence of JJJ1. In the absence of CDR1 or PDR1, deletion of JJJ1 has only a modest effect on fluconazole susceptibility. Transcriptional profiling using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed upregulation of genes of the Pdr1 regulon in the absence of JJJ1. Jjj1 appears to be a negative regulator of fluconazole resistance in C. glabrata and acts primarily through upregulation of the ABC transporter gene CDR1 via activation of the Pdr1 transcriptional pathway. IMPORTANCECandida glabrata is the second most common species of Candida recovered from patients with invasive candidiasis. The increasing number of infections due to C. glabrata, combined with its high rates of resistance to the commonly used, well-tolerated azole class of antifungal agents, has limited the use of this antifungal class. This has led to the preferential use of echinocandins as empirical treatment for serious Candida infections. The primary mechanism of resistance found in clinical isolates is the presence of an activating mutation in the gene encoding the transcription factor Pdr1 that results in upregulation of one or more of the efflux pumps Cdr1, Pdh1, and Snq2. By developing a better understanding of this mechanism of resistance to the azoles, it will be possible to develop strategies for reclaiming the utility of the azole antifungals against this important fungal pathogen.

AB - The high prevalence of fluconazole resistance among clinical isolates of Candida glabrata has greatly hampered the utility of fluconazole for the treatment of invasive candidiasis. Fluconazole resistance in this yeast is almost exclusively due to activating mutations in the transcription factor Pdr1, which result in upregulation of the ABC transporter genes CDR1, PDH1, and SNQ2 and therefore increased fluconazole efflux. However, the regulation of Pdr1 is poorly understood. In order to identify genes that interact with the Pdr1 transcriptional pathway and influence the susceptibility of C. glabrata to fluconazole, we screened a collection of deletion mutants for those exhibiting increased resistance to fluconazole. Deletion of the gene coding for a protein homologous to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae J protein Jjj1 resulted in decreased fluconazole susceptibility. We used the SAT1 flipper method to generate independent deletion mutants for JJJ1 in an SDD clinical isolate. Expression of both CDR1 and PDR1 was increased in the absence of JJJ1. In the absence of CDR1 or PDR1, deletion of JJJ1 has only a modest effect on fluconazole susceptibility. Transcriptional profiling using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed upregulation of genes of the Pdr1 regulon in the absence of JJJ1. Jjj1 appears to be a negative regulator of fluconazole resistance in C. glabrata and acts primarily through upregulation of the ABC transporter gene CDR1 via activation of the Pdr1 transcriptional pathway. IMPORTANCECandida glabrata is the second most common species of Candida recovered from patients with invasive candidiasis. The increasing number of infections due to C. glabrata, combined with its high rates of resistance to the commonly used, well-tolerated azole class of antifungal agents, has limited the use of this antifungal class. This has led to the preferential use of echinocandins as empirical treatment for serious Candida infections. The primary mechanism of resistance found in clinical isolates is the presence of an activating mutation in the gene encoding the transcription factor Pdr1 that results in upregulation of one or more of the efflux pumps Cdr1, Pdh1, and Snq2. By developing a better understanding of this mechanism of resistance to the azoles, it will be possible to develop strategies for reclaiming the utility of the azole antifungals against this important fungal pathogen.

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