Lactose promotes organized photoreceptor outer segment assembly and preserves expression of photoreceptor proteins in retinal degeneration

Monica Jablonski, Amira Wohabrebbi, Cynthia S. Ervin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: We have previously shown that lactose promotes the proper assembly of photoreceptor outer segments in the absence of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The purpose of this study was to determine if the difference between organized and disorganized membranes was a variation in the amounts of two structural proteins, opsin and rds/peripherin. Methods: Eye rudiments were dissected from Xenopus laevis embryos and the RPE was removed prior to culturing in the following media: Niu-Twitty medium; Niu-Twitty with mannose; Niu-Twitty with lactose. Controls included retinas that matured in vitro with an adherent RPE. Photoreceptor ultrastructure was evaluated with emphasis on outer segment membrane organization. The relative amounts of opsin and rds/peripherin, two outer segment-specific proteins, were determined, as were their immunolabeling patterns. Results: In control retinas, outer segments were composed of stacked, flattened membranous saccules. Opsin labeling of rod outer segments was very dense, indicative of normally organized disc membranes, and rds/peripherin labeling was heavy at the outer segment disc periphery and incisures. In the absence of the RPE, a whorl-like profile of outer segments is present in what would be the sub-retinal space. Opsin immunolabeling was patchy and disorganized. Immunolabeling of rds/peripherin was present, but in a disorderly array. Mannose showed no protective effect. In contrast, lactose promoted the formation of organized outer segments and allowed for near normal expression of both photoreceptor markers. In retinas with disorganized outer segments, the expression of opsin is downregulated while the expression of rds/peripherin is maintained or upregulated. Conclusions: Lactose protects against the retinal degeneration induced by RPE removal by preserving the outer segment structure and the photoreceptor immunolabeling patterns. It also maintains constant the relative amounts of opsin and rds/peripherin. It is possible that in degenerating retinas, photoreceptors upregulate rds/peripherin expression in attempt to provide additional support for the proper folding of nascent membranes, however this is insufficient to permit organization of the photoreceptor outer segments. Our results suggest that rescue-effect of lactose is mediated by a non-rds/peripherin related mechanism.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalMolecular vision
Volume5
Issue number16
StatePublished - Dec 1 1999

Fingerprint

Peripherins
Retinal Degeneration
Lactose
Opsins
Retinal Pigment Epithelium
Retina
Proteins
Membranes
Mannose
Saccule and Utricle
Rod Cell Outer Segment
Xenopus laevis
Up-Regulation
Down-Regulation
Embryonic Structures

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ophthalmology

Cite this

Lactose promotes organized photoreceptor outer segment assembly and preserves expression of photoreceptor proteins in retinal degeneration. / Jablonski, Monica; Wohabrebbi, Amira; Ervin, Cynthia S.

In: Molecular vision, Vol. 5, No. 16, 01.12.1999.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{1d4870411c6f4399aa2246c33c626115,
title = "Lactose promotes organized photoreceptor outer segment assembly and preserves expression of photoreceptor proteins in retinal degeneration",
abstract = "Purpose: We have previously shown that lactose promotes the proper assembly of photoreceptor outer segments in the absence of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The purpose of this study was to determine if the difference between organized and disorganized membranes was a variation in the amounts of two structural proteins, opsin and rds/peripherin. Methods: Eye rudiments were dissected from Xenopus laevis embryos and the RPE was removed prior to culturing in the following media: Niu-Twitty medium; Niu-Twitty with mannose; Niu-Twitty with lactose. Controls included retinas that matured in vitro with an adherent RPE. Photoreceptor ultrastructure was evaluated with emphasis on outer segment membrane organization. The relative amounts of opsin and rds/peripherin, two outer segment-specific proteins, were determined, as were their immunolabeling patterns. Results: In control retinas, outer segments were composed of stacked, flattened membranous saccules. Opsin labeling of rod outer segments was very dense, indicative of normally organized disc membranes, and rds/peripherin labeling was heavy at the outer segment disc periphery and incisures. In the absence of the RPE, a whorl-like profile of outer segments is present in what would be the sub-retinal space. Opsin immunolabeling was patchy and disorganized. Immunolabeling of rds/peripherin was present, but in a disorderly array. Mannose showed no protective effect. In contrast, lactose promoted the formation of organized outer segments and allowed for near normal expression of both photoreceptor markers. In retinas with disorganized outer segments, the expression of opsin is downregulated while the expression of rds/peripherin is maintained or upregulated. Conclusions: Lactose protects against the retinal degeneration induced by RPE removal by preserving the outer segment structure and the photoreceptor immunolabeling patterns. It also maintains constant the relative amounts of opsin and rds/peripherin. It is possible that in degenerating retinas, photoreceptors upregulate rds/peripherin expression in attempt to provide additional support for the proper folding of nascent membranes, however this is insufficient to permit organization of the photoreceptor outer segments. Our results suggest that rescue-effect of lactose is mediated by a non-rds/peripherin related mechanism.",
author = "Monica Jablonski and Amira Wohabrebbi and Ervin, {Cynthia S.}",
year = "1999",
month = "12",
day = "1",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "5",
journal = "Molecular Vision",
issn = "1090-0535",
number = "16",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Lactose promotes organized photoreceptor outer segment assembly and preserves expression of photoreceptor proteins in retinal degeneration

AU - Jablonski, Monica

AU - Wohabrebbi, Amira

AU - Ervin, Cynthia S.

PY - 1999/12/1

Y1 - 1999/12/1

N2 - Purpose: We have previously shown that lactose promotes the proper assembly of photoreceptor outer segments in the absence of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The purpose of this study was to determine if the difference between organized and disorganized membranes was a variation in the amounts of two structural proteins, opsin and rds/peripherin. Methods: Eye rudiments were dissected from Xenopus laevis embryos and the RPE was removed prior to culturing in the following media: Niu-Twitty medium; Niu-Twitty with mannose; Niu-Twitty with lactose. Controls included retinas that matured in vitro with an adherent RPE. Photoreceptor ultrastructure was evaluated with emphasis on outer segment membrane organization. The relative amounts of opsin and rds/peripherin, two outer segment-specific proteins, were determined, as were their immunolabeling patterns. Results: In control retinas, outer segments were composed of stacked, flattened membranous saccules. Opsin labeling of rod outer segments was very dense, indicative of normally organized disc membranes, and rds/peripherin labeling was heavy at the outer segment disc periphery and incisures. In the absence of the RPE, a whorl-like profile of outer segments is present in what would be the sub-retinal space. Opsin immunolabeling was patchy and disorganized. Immunolabeling of rds/peripherin was present, but in a disorderly array. Mannose showed no protective effect. In contrast, lactose promoted the formation of organized outer segments and allowed for near normal expression of both photoreceptor markers. In retinas with disorganized outer segments, the expression of opsin is downregulated while the expression of rds/peripherin is maintained or upregulated. Conclusions: Lactose protects against the retinal degeneration induced by RPE removal by preserving the outer segment structure and the photoreceptor immunolabeling patterns. It also maintains constant the relative amounts of opsin and rds/peripherin. It is possible that in degenerating retinas, photoreceptors upregulate rds/peripherin expression in attempt to provide additional support for the proper folding of nascent membranes, however this is insufficient to permit organization of the photoreceptor outer segments. Our results suggest that rescue-effect of lactose is mediated by a non-rds/peripherin related mechanism.

AB - Purpose: We have previously shown that lactose promotes the proper assembly of photoreceptor outer segments in the absence of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The purpose of this study was to determine if the difference between organized and disorganized membranes was a variation in the amounts of two structural proteins, opsin and rds/peripherin. Methods: Eye rudiments were dissected from Xenopus laevis embryos and the RPE was removed prior to culturing in the following media: Niu-Twitty medium; Niu-Twitty with mannose; Niu-Twitty with lactose. Controls included retinas that matured in vitro with an adherent RPE. Photoreceptor ultrastructure was evaluated with emphasis on outer segment membrane organization. The relative amounts of opsin and rds/peripherin, two outer segment-specific proteins, were determined, as were their immunolabeling patterns. Results: In control retinas, outer segments were composed of stacked, flattened membranous saccules. Opsin labeling of rod outer segments was very dense, indicative of normally organized disc membranes, and rds/peripherin labeling was heavy at the outer segment disc periphery and incisures. In the absence of the RPE, a whorl-like profile of outer segments is present in what would be the sub-retinal space. Opsin immunolabeling was patchy and disorganized. Immunolabeling of rds/peripherin was present, but in a disorderly array. Mannose showed no protective effect. In contrast, lactose promoted the formation of organized outer segments and allowed for near normal expression of both photoreceptor markers. In retinas with disorganized outer segments, the expression of opsin is downregulated while the expression of rds/peripherin is maintained or upregulated. Conclusions: Lactose protects against the retinal degeneration induced by RPE removal by preserving the outer segment structure and the photoreceptor immunolabeling patterns. It also maintains constant the relative amounts of opsin and rds/peripherin. It is possible that in degenerating retinas, photoreceptors upregulate rds/peripherin expression in attempt to provide additional support for the proper folding of nascent membranes, however this is insufficient to permit organization of the photoreceptor outer segments. Our results suggest that rescue-effect of lactose is mediated by a non-rds/peripherin related mechanism.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33947206274&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33947206274&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 5

JO - Molecular Vision

JF - Molecular Vision

SN - 1090-0535

IS - 16

ER -