Macrophage response to high number of titanium particles is cytotoxic and COX-2 mediated and it is not affected by the particle's endotoxin content or the cleaning treatment

Luciana P. Schwab, Justin Marlar, Karen Hasty, Richard Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Periprosthetic osteolysis is a progressive deterioration of bone around prostheses resulting primarily from the presence of wear debris. Particulate material, number, and their interactions with environmental factors play important roles in macrophage activation around implants. We have previously shown that macrophages cultured in the presence of high numbers of cleaned titanium (Ti) particles released significant amounts of PGE2 that is potentially detrimental for bone. Cleaning of particles has become routine in most studies of macrophage/particle interactions as contaminating endotoxin elicits a macrophage cytokine response and since numerous studies have suggested that endotoxins may be present on implant materials. However, the strenuous cleaning procedure itself represents a possible source of other contaminants (such as material by-products) that may be relevant to the prostanoid response of macrophages. To analyze this hypothesis, the macrophage response to high numbers of cleaned Ti particles was compared to that of unclean particles and to particles that were subjected to a short version of the cleaning procedure. It was found that neither the high amount of endotoxin on the unclean particles nor the duration of the cleaning procedure had an effect on the release of PGE 2 and the decrease in cell viability in response to high number of Ti particles. Evidence of a possible relationship between these two variables is presented.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)630-637
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A
Volume99 A
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 15 2011

Fingerprint

Macrophages
Titanium
Endotoxins
Cleaning
Bone
Particle interactions
Prostaglandins E
Prosthetics
Dinoprostone
Debris
Prostaglandins
Byproducts
Deterioration
Chemical activation
Cells
Wear of materials
Impurities
Cytokines

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Metals and Alloys

Cite this

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title = "Macrophage response to high number of titanium particles is cytotoxic and COX-2 mediated and it is not affected by the particle's endotoxin content or the cleaning treatment",
abstract = "Periprosthetic osteolysis is a progressive deterioration of bone around prostheses resulting primarily from the presence of wear debris. Particulate material, number, and their interactions with environmental factors play important roles in macrophage activation around implants. We have previously shown that macrophages cultured in the presence of high numbers of cleaned titanium (Ti) particles released significant amounts of PGE2 that is potentially detrimental for bone. Cleaning of particles has become routine in most studies of macrophage/particle interactions as contaminating endotoxin elicits a macrophage cytokine response and since numerous studies have suggested that endotoxins may be present on implant materials. However, the strenuous cleaning procedure itself represents a possible source of other contaminants (such as material by-products) that may be relevant to the prostanoid response of macrophages. To analyze this hypothesis, the macrophage response to high numbers of cleaned Ti particles was compared to that of unclean particles and to particles that were subjected to a short version of the cleaning procedure. It was found that neither the high amount of endotoxin on the unclean particles nor the duration of the cleaning procedure had an effect on the release of PGE 2 and the decrease in cell viability in response to high number of Ti particles. Evidence of a possible relationship between these two variables is presented.",
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AU - Marlar, Justin

AU - Hasty, Karen

AU - Smith, Richard

PY - 2011/12/15

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N2 - Periprosthetic osteolysis is a progressive deterioration of bone around prostheses resulting primarily from the presence of wear debris. Particulate material, number, and their interactions with environmental factors play important roles in macrophage activation around implants. We have previously shown that macrophages cultured in the presence of high numbers of cleaned titanium (Ti) particles released significant amounts of PGE2 that is potentially detrimental for bone. Cleaning of particles has become routine in most studies of macrophage/particle interactions as contaminating endotoxin elicits a macrophage cytokine response and since numerous studies have suggested that endotoxins may be present on implant materials. However, the strenuous cleaning procedure itself represents a possible source of other contaminants (such as material by-products) that may be relevant to the prostanoid response of macrophages. To analyze this hypothesis, the macrophage response to high numbers of cleaned Ti particles was compared to that of unclean particles and to particles that were subjected to a short version of the cleaning procedure. It was found that neither the high amount of endotoxin on the unclean particles nor the duration of the cleaning procedure had an effect on the release of PGE 2 and the decrease in cell viability in response to high number of Ti particles. Evidence of a possible relationship between these two variables is presented.

AB - Periprosthetic osteolysis is a progressive deterioration of bone around prostheses resulting primarily from the presence of wear debris. Particulate material, number, and their interactions with environmental factors play important roles in macrophage activation around implants. We have previously shown that macrophages cultured in the presence of high numbers of cleaned titanium (Ti) particles released significant amounts of PGE2 that is potentially detrimental for bone. Cleaning of particles has become routine in most studies of macrophage/particle interactions as contaminating endotoxin elicits a macrophage cytokine response and since numerous studies have suggested that endotoxins may be present on implant materials. However, the strenuous cleaning procedure itself represents a possible source of other contaminants (such as material by-products) that may be relevant to the prostanoid response of macrophages. To analyze this hypothesis, the macrophage response to high numbers of cleaned Ti particles was compared to that of unclean particles and to particles that were subjected to a short version of the cleaning procedure. It was found that neither the high amount of endotoxin on the unclean particles nor the duration of the cleaning procedure had an effect on the release of PGE 2 and the decrease in cell viability in response to high number of Ti particles. Evidence of a possible relationship between these two variables is presented.

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