Methamphetamine potentiates HIV-1 gp120-mediated autophagy via beclin-1 and Atg5/7 as a pro-survival response in astrocytes

Lu Cao, Mingui Fu, Santosh Kumar, Anil Kumar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Methamphetamine (METH), a commonly used controlled substance, is known to exacerbate neuropathological dysfunction in HIV-infected individuals. The neuropathological manifestation results from cell death or dysfunction in the central nervous system (CNS) wherein autophagy is expected to have an important role. Autophagy is generally considered protective during deprivation/ stress. However, excessive autophagy can be destructive, leading to autophagic cell death. This study was designed to investigate if METH and HIV-1 gp120 interact to induce autophagy in SVGA astrocytes, and whether autophagy is epiphenomenal or it has a role in METH-and gp120-induced cytotoxicity. We found that METH and gp120 IIIb caused an increase in LC3II level in astrocytes in a dose-and time-dependent manner, and the level of LC3II was further increased when the cells were treated with METH and gp120 IIIb in combination. Next, we sought to explore the mechanism by which METH and gp120 induce the autophagic response. We found that METH induces autophagy via opioid and metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 (mGluR5) receptors. Other than that, signaling proteins Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), Beclin-1, Atg5 and Atg7 were involved in METH and gp120-mediated autophagy. In addition, long-term treatment of METH and gp120 IIIb resulted in cell death, which was exacerbated by inhibition of autophagy. This suggests that autophagy functions as a protective response against apoptosis caused by METH and gp120. This study is novel and clinically relevant because METH abuse among HIV-infected populations is highly prevalent and is known to cause exacerbated neuroAIDS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere2425
JournalCell Death and Disease
Volume7
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016

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Methamphetamine
Autophagy
Astrocytes
HIV-1
Beclin-1
Cell Death
Metabotropic Glutamate 5 Receptor
Controlled Substances
HIV
Sirolimus
Opioid Analgesics
Central Nervous System
Apoptosis

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Immunology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Cell Biology
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

Methamphetamine potentiates HIV-1 gp120-mediated autophagy via beclin-1 and Atg5/7 as a pro-survival response in astrocytes. / Cao, Lu; Fu, Mingui; Kumar, Santosh; Kumar, Anil.

In: Cell Death and Disease, Vol. 7, No. 10, e2425, 01.01.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Methamphetamine (METH), a commonly used controlled substance, is known to exacerbate neuropathological dysfunction in HIV-infected individuals. The neuropathological manifestation results from cell death or dysfunction in the central nervous system (CNS) wherein autophagy is expected to have an important role. Autophagy is generally considered protective during deprivation/ stress. However, excessive autophagy can be destructive, leading to autophagic cell death. This study was designed to investigate if METH and HIV-1 gp120 interact to induce autophagy in SVGA astrocytes, and whether autophagy is epiphenomenal or it has a role in METH-and gp120-induced cytotoxicity. We found that METH and gp120 IIIb caused an increase in LC3II level in astrocytes in a dose-and time-dependent manner, and the level of LC3II was further increased when the cells were treated with METH and gp120 IIIb in combination. Next, we sought to explore the mechanism by which METH and gp120 induce the autophagic response. We found that METH induces autophagy via opioid and metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 (mGluR5) receptors. Other than that, signaling proteins Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), Beclin-1, Atg5 and Atg7 were involved in METH and gp120-mediated autophagy. In addition, long-term treatment of METH and gp120 IIIb resulted in cell death, which was exacerbated by inhibition of autophagy. This suggests that autophagy functions as a protective response against apoptosis caused by METH and gp120. This study is novel and clinically relevant because METH abuse among HIV-infected populations is highly prevalent and is known to cause exacerbated neuroAIDS.",
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