Micronutrient‐fortified milk and academic performance among Chinese middle school students

A cluster‐randomized controlled trial

Xiaoqin Wang, Zhaozhao Hui, Xiaoling Dai, Paul Terry, Yue Zhang, Mei Ma, Mingxu Wang, Fu Deng, Wei Gu, Shuangyan Lei, Ling Li, Mingyue Ma, Bin Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Many children suffer from nutritional deficiencies that may negatively affect their academic performance. This cluster‐randomized controlled trial aimed to test the effects of micronutrient‐fortified milk in Chinese students. Participants received either micronutrient‐fortified (n = 177) or unfortified (n = 183) milk for six months. Academic performance, motivation, and learning strategies were estimated by end‐of‐term tests and the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire. Blood samples were analyzed for micronutrients. In total, 296 students (82.2%) completed this study. Compared with the control group, students in the intervention group reported higher scores in several academic subjects (p < 0.05), including languages, mathematics, ethics, and physical performance at the end of follow‐up. Students in the intervention group showed greater self‐efficacy and use of cognitive strategies in learning, and reported less test anxiety (p < 0.001). Moreover, vitamin B2 deficiency (odds ratio (OR) = 0.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.11~0.30) and iron deficiency (OR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.14~0.81) were less likely in the students of the intervention group, whereas vitamin D, vitamin B12, and selenium deficiencies were not significantly different. “Cognitive strategy” had a partial mediating effect on the test scores of English (95% CI: 1.26~3.79) and Chinese (95% CI: 0.53~2.21). Our findings suggest that micronutrient‐fortified milk may improve students’ academic performance, motivation, and learning strategies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number226
JournalNutrients
Volume9
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2 2017

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middle school students
academic achievement
Milk
students
Students
milk
confidence interval
learning
Learning
Confidence Intervals
odds ratio
Motivation
Odds Ratio
testing
Vitamin B 12 Deficiency
Avitaminosis
Riboflavin
Mathematics
Micronutrients
ethics

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Micronutrient‐fortified milk and academic performance among Chinese middle school students : A cluster‐randomized controlled trial. / Wang, Xiaoqin; Hui, Zhaozhao; Dai, Xiaoling; Terry, Paul; Zhang, Yue; Ma, Mei; Wang, Mingxu; Deng, Fu; Gu, Wei; Lei, Shuangyan; Li, Ling; Ma, Mingyue; Zhang, Bin.

In: Nutrients, Vol. 9, No. 3, 226, 02.03.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wang, X, Hui, Z, Dai, X, Terry, P, Zhang, Y, Ma, M, Wang, M, Deng, F, Gu, W, Lei, S, Li, L, Ma, M & Zhang, B 2017, 'Micronutrient‐fortified milk and academic performance among Chinese middle school students: A cluster‐randomized controlled trial', Nutrients, vol. 9, no. 3, 226. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030226
Wang, Xiaoqin ; Hui, Zhaozhao ; Dai, Xiaoling ; Terry, Paul ; Zhang, Yue ; Ma, Mei ; Wang, Mingxu ; Deng, Fu ; Gu, Wei ; Lei, Shuangyan ; Li, Ling ; Ma, Mingyue ; Zhang, Bin. / Micronutrient‐fortified milk and academic performance among Chinese middle school students : A cluster‐randomized controlled trial. In: Nutrients. 2017 ; Vol. 9, No. 3.
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